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Research Project: Coordinated Precision Application Technologies for Sustainable Pest Management and Crop Protection

Location: Application Technology Research

Title: Field evaluation of electrostatic precipitators for particulate matter mitigation in a manure-belt layer facility

item KNIGHT, REYNA - The Ohio State University
item HERKINS, MATTHEW - The Ohio State University
item HOCTOR, JEB - The Ohio State University
item MILLIKEN, SHANNON - The Ohio State University
item ZHAO, LINGYING - The Ohio State University
item Zhu, Heping

Submitted to: Biosystems Engineering
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/13/2023
Publication Date: 4/28/2023
Citation: Knight, R., Herkins, M., Hoctor, J., Milliken, S., Zhao, L., Zhu, H. 2023. Field evaluation of electrostatic precipitators for particulate matter mitigation in a manure-belt layer facility. Biosystems Engineering. 230:131-144.

Interpretive Summary: Mitigation of particulate matter (PM) emission has become a high priority for the poultry industry. This is because the airborne PM emitted from poultry facilities have been linked to spreading pathogens and increasing bird mortality rates. However, little information is available on the PM mitigation capabilities of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) at commercial poultry facilities. In this research, two previously-developed and laboratory-validated ESP prototypes were tested for their effectiveness to remove PMs under commercial poultry facility conditions. Total removal efficiencies of suspended particulates (TSP) were quantified, and the ESP performance regression models were calibrated and validated as a set of tools to predict ESP performance in varied conditions. The practicality and economic feasibility of the prototype ESPs were also assessed for potential applications at commercial poultry facilities. Test results demonstrated that the two prototype ESPs had 95% total PM removal efficiencies which were significantly greater than conventional PM removal systems. The field-calibrated prediction models could accurately predict the PM removal performance, which could provide an invaluable tool for estimating the potentially achievable PM removal efficiencies of ESPs installed in poultry facilities with known airflow characteristics and PM concentrations. The preliminary economic cost analysis suggested that installation of multiple ESPs in large commercial poultry facilities could have lower costs per bird than conventional systems. Thus, these promising findings could be utilized as a framework and benchmark for future applications of the ESPs in commercial poultry facilities.

Technical Abstract: Two full-scale electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) were tested at a commercial poultry egg production facility to assess their particulate matter (PM) removal capabilities. The smaller indoor ESP had an airflow treatment area of 0.371 m2 and operated at 26 kV, resulting in mean PM2.5, PM10, and total suspended particulates (TSP) removal efficiencies of 79.6% ± 5.7%, 92.7% ± 4.4%, and 94.6% ± 2.0%, respectively. The respective mean PM2.5, PM10, and TSP removal efficiencies for the larger exhaust ESP, which had an airflow treatment area of 0.767 m2 and was operated at 40 kV, were 93.6% ± 5.0%, 94.0% ± 5.0%, and 94.7% ± 4.4%. The indoor ESP showed greater PM2.5 and PM10 removal efficiencies in warm weather, whilst cold weather resulted in higher removal efficiencies for the exhaust ESP. The indoor ESP exhibited greater PM2.5 removal efficiencies throughout the afternoon, while PM removal efficiencies were lower during the afternoon for the exhaust ESP. Previously developed empirical models to predict weighted ESP PM removal efficiencies were calibrated to field data and successfully validated. The indoor ESP featured an initial cost of US$7,095 and an estimated annual operating cost of US$120, with a system of ESPs to treat recirculated air costing US$16,765 annually. For the exhaust ESP, the initial cost per unit was US$8,610, with an estimated annual operating cost of US$123 per unit or US$23,631 for a system of ESPs to treat exhaust air for the entire facility. Significant further research is required to quantitatively assess potential cost effectiveness for systems of multiple ESPs installed at commercial poultry facilities.