Location: Sustainable Water Management ResearchTitle: Eddy covariance quantification of carbon and water dynamics in twin-row vs. single-row planted corn
|PINNAMANENI, SRINIVASA - Oak Ridge Institute For Science And Education (ORISE)|
|SIMMONS, CLYDE - Delta Council|
Submitted to: Agricultural Water Management
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/15/2023
Publication Date: 3/7/2023
Citation: Anapalli, S.S., Pinnamaneni, S.R., Chastain, D.R., Reddy, K.N., Simmons, C.D. 2023. Eddy covariance quantification of carbon and water dynamics in twin-row vs. single-row planted corn. Agricultural Water Management. 281:108235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2023.108235.
Interpretive Summary: Enhancing the productivity of pumped water from aquifers is key to saving the natural resources for sustainable irrigated agriculture in the MS Delta region. In this investigation, corn planted in a single-row on a raised-bed ridge-furrow system was compared against the crop planted in a twin-row pattern for yield and water use efficiency. The crop's consumptive water use and amount of biomass generated from the carbon dioxide absorbed from the air were measured using the cutting-edge-science eddy covariance technology. The crops for the investigation were raised on large-scale farmer’s fields. Switching from single-row to twin-row planting fixed about 40 % more carbon dioxide in corn biomass and increased grain yield by about 19%. However, crop consumptive water use also increased by 22 %. In both systems, the amount of water used for the same amount of grain yield did not change. The study presented was based on research conducted on large-scale farmer’s fields without interfering with the agronomic operations in growing corn for optimum yield returns; as such, the study is more reliable for a recommendation for crop management than results based on small-plot-based trials.
Technical Abstract: For sustainable irrigated crop production, enhancing the productivity of pumped water from aquifers, which are fast declining, is critical. In this investigation, the yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of corn planted in a single-row (SR) on a raised-bed ridge-furrow system was compared with corn planted in a twin-row (TR) pattern. The crop's consumptive water use (evapotranspiration, ET) was quantified using the eddy covariance (EC) technology. The crops for the investigation were raised on large-scale farmer’s fields (above 100 ha). In the EC system, CO2 and water vapor fluxes over corn plant canopies were monitored using an infrared gas analyzer, and wind turbulence was quantified using an omnidirectional 3D sonic anemometer. The LAI, grain yield, ET, net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE), and gross primary productivity (GPP) measured under TR were higher than SR by 18, 19, 22, 90, and 41 %, respectively. Also, WUE in NEE (WUENE) was higher under TR than SR by 40 %, rendering TR the best choice for corn planting in the region. WUE for grain yield (WUEGY) and net ecosystem respiration did not differ appreciably across TR and SR systems. The measured ET in TR was 518 mm, while SR was 426 mm during the crop season (emergence to physiological maturity). The study conducted in large-scale farm fields gives better confidence than results obtained based on conventional small-plot studies recommending the TR over SR planting in the region for grain yield and WUENE in corn production systems.