Location: Immunity and Disease Prevention ResearchTitle: Plasma mineral status after a six-month intervention providing one egg per day to young Malawian children: A randomized controlled trial
|PEREZ-PLAZOLA, MARINA - Washington University School Of Medicine|
|DIAZ, JENNA - Washington University School Of Medicine|
|STEWART, CHRISTINE - University Of California, Davis|
|ARNOLD, CHARLES - University Of California, Davis|
|LUTTER, CHESSA - University Of California, Davis|
|WERNER, E. ROCHELLE - University Of California, Davis|
|MALETA, KENNETH - University Of Malawi|
|TURNER, JAY - Washington University|
|PRATHIBHA, PRADEEP - Washington University|
|LIU, XUAN - Washington University|
|GYIMAH, EMMANUEL - Washington University|
|IANNOTTI, LORA - Washington University|
Submitted to: Scientific Reports
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/6/2023
Publication Date: 4/24/2023
Citation: Perez-Plazola, M., Diaz, J., Stewart, C., Arnold, C.D., Caswell, B.L., Lutter, C., Werner, E., Maleta, K., Turner, J., Prathibha, P., Liu, X., Gyimah, E., Iannotti, L.L. 2023. Plasma mineral status after a six-month intervention providing one egg per day to young Malawian children: A randomized controlled trial. Scientific Reports. 13. Article 6698. https://doi.org/10.1038%2Fs41598-023-33114-1.
Interpretive Summary: Dietary minerals -- iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium, selenium and copper -- are necessary for healthy growth and development in infants and young children. Animal source foods are good sources of bioavailable minerals, and children who consume low amounts of animal source foods may be at higher risk of mineral deficiencies. This is particularly the case for children in low-income countries where availability and accessibility of animal source foods are limited. In this study, we examined whether providing one egg per day to 6- to 15-month-old children in rural Malawi resulted in increased plasma mineral concentrations. At the end of the egg intervention, plasma concentrations of calcium, magnesium, zinc, selenium and copper were the same in the group of children who received eggs and in a control group of similar children who did not receive eggs. Plasma iron concentrations were lower in the egg group than the control group. Further research is needed to identify interventions that will improve mineral status among undernourished children.
Technical Abstract: Background: Mineral deficiencies are common in children living in low-resource areas. Eggs are a rich source of several essential nutrients and have been shown to improve growth in young children. However, little is known about the impact of eggs on mineral status. Methods: Children in rural Malawi aged 6-9 months (n=660) were randomized to receive one egg per day for six months or to receive no intervention. Anthropometric data, dietary habits, and venous blood were collected at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Quantification of plasma minerals (n=387) was done using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Negative binomial regression and modified Poisson models were applied to estimate intervention effects on plasma mineral levels and examine socio-economic and demographic factors as potential effect modifiers. Results: The mean difference (MD) in plasma calcium, magnesium, selenium, and zinc were non-significant between groups. Plasma iron concentrations had significantly greater reductions in the intervention group compared to the control group in fully adjusted comparisons (MD = -9.06, 95% CI: -15.65, -2.48). Conclusions: Children in this trial had indication of mineral deficiencies that were not addressed with the egg intervention. Further dietary interventions are needed to improve the mineral status of young children.