Submitted to: BMC Research Notes
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/21/2022
Publication Date: 7/2/2022
Citation: Maki, J.J., Lippolis, J.D., Looft, T.P. 2022. Proteomic response of Turicibacter bilis MMM721 to chicken bile and its bile acids. BMC Research Notes. 15(1). Article e236. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-022-06127-8.
Interpretive Summary: Maintenance of a productive livestock and poultry industry is critical for feeding a growing population. Intestinal bacteria interact and influence animal health, however understanding the mechanisms individual bacteria employ is necessary to support animal production and health. Bile aids digestion and nutrient absorption, but can act as a stressor when microbes in the small intestine come into contact with it. While some bacteria have adapted to living in the presence of bile, it’s unclear how they do this. In this study, we characterized the response of a bacteria (Turicibacter bilis) to bile from poultry and bile components of the newly described intestinal bacteria. T. bilis inhabits the small intestine of chickens and turkeys, where it has adapted to survive in the presence of bile. Bile exposure reduced the rate of growth of T. bilis. Analysis of the proteins made by T. bilis during growth in bile showed an increase in proteins associated with growth and protein synthesis, suggesting that T. bilis adjusts to bile stress by altering its growth. Studies like this improve our understanding of how bacteria in the intestinal tracts of poultry change in response to the host and provides insights into host-microbe interactions that may influence digestion.
Technical Abstract: Objective: Bile and its individual components, mainly bile acids, are important for digestion and drive bacterial community dynamics in the upper gastrointestinal tract of chickens. However, specific responses to bile acids have been characterized in only a few commensal bacteria, and it is unclear how other members of the microbiota respond to biliary stress. Here, we used label-free LC-MS/MS to assess the proteomic response of a common inhabitant of the chicken small intestine, Turicibacter bilis MMM721, to 24 hours of growth in anaerobic growth media supplemented with 0.1% whole chicken bile, 0.1% taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA), or 0.1% taurocholic acid (TCA). Results: 70, 46, and 10 differentially expressed proteins were identified in Turicibacter bilis MMM721 cultured with supplements of chicken bile, TCDCA, and TCA, respectively, when compared to unsupplemented controls. Many differentially expressed proteins were predicted to be involved in ribosomal processes, post-translational modifications and chaperones, and modifications to the cell surface. Ultimately, the T. bilis MMM721 response to whole bile and bile acids is complex and may relate to adaptations for small intestine colonization, with numerous proteins from a variety of functional categories being impacted.