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ARS Home » Plains Area » Grand Forks, North Dakota » Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center » Healthy Body Weight Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #390041

Research Project: Dietary and Physical Activity Guidance for Weight Loss and Maintenance

Location: Healthy Body Weight Research

Title: Modeling dairy-free and vegan USDA food patterns

item Hess, Julie

Submitted to: National Nutrient Databank Conference
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/9/2022
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary: See technical comments (CFK)

Technical Abstract: Objective: The 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommends three dietary patterns for Americans, including a Healthy Vegetarian Dietary Pattern (HVDP). The objective of this study is to assess whether the HVDP can be adapted for dairy-free and vegan diets while providing adequate nutrition for healthy adults. Materials and Methods: Using the same food pattern modeling procedures as the 2020 DGA, we assessed the energy and nutrient composition of two alternative models of the 2000-calorie HVDP—dairy-free and vegan. For both models, we replaced the dairy food composite with a dairy alternative composite (dairyALT) comprised of fortified soy milk and yogurt. For the vegan model, eggs were replaced with equal proportions of vegetarian protein foods. Results: Dairy-free and vegan models required minimal changes to the original HVDP. Servings of vegetables, fruits, grains, oils, and discretionary calories remained the same. The content of total fat, iron, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin K increased in both models by 10-20% (all comparisons are relative to the original HVDP). Polyunsaturated fat, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, copper, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 increased by =20% in both models. Choline increased by 27% in the dairy-free model. Protein, sodium, and zinc decreased by 10-20%, while cholesterol and phosphorus decreased by =20%. Selenium decreased by 15% in the vegan model. Carbohydrate, fiber, saturated fat, EPA, DHA, calcium, magnesium, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, thiamin, and vitamin B6 changed =10%. Both models contain adequate nutrition to meet Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for most age and sex groups for which a 2000-calorie diet may be appropriate. Zinc is the only nutrient that was below the DRI for adult males. Significance: The dairy-free and vegan HVDP models could help adults who choose not to consume dairy foods and/or other animal products to follow nutritionally adequate dietary patterns.