Location: Northwest Irrigation and Soils ResearchTitle: Barley yield and malt-characteristics as affected by nitrogen and final irrigation timing
|DARI, BISWANATH - North Carolina A&t State University|
|NEIBLING, H - University Of Idaho|
Submitted to: Agronomy Journal
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/7/2022
Publication Date: 3/1/2022
Citation: Rogers, C.W., Dari, B., Neibling, H., Walling, J.G. 2022. Barley yield and malt-characteristics as affected by nitrogen and final irrigation timing. Agronomy Journal. 114(2):1461-1474. https://doi.org/10.1002/agj2.21036.
Interpretive Summary: Idaho is one of the largest malt barley producers in the United States. In Idaho, barley is a major commodity in the irrigated production area of the semi-arid Snake River Plain of the southern part of the state. Fertilization with nitrogen and irrigation are the two managed factors that typically have the greatest influence on yield and quality. Research looked at nitrogen application rates and timing of the final irrigation for the season. Irrigation ending at the soft dough crop stage maximized most yield and quality parameters where an additional irrigation had little effect on most measured factors. At the highest levels of added nitrogen, protein was increased to levels above those appropriate for malting and brewing. The results provided evidence of the usefulness of grain protein in predicting malt factors at multiple N and irrigation levels. The results of this study provide evidence of the impact of irrigation cutoff timing and nitrogen management on grain yield and quality and malt characteristics that are critical for establishing appropriate fertilizer-N recommendations and irrigation management strategies in malting barley.
Technical Abstract: Idaho is one of the largest malt barley (hordeum vulgare, L.) producers in the United States. In Idaho, barley is a major commodity in the irrigated production area of the semi-arid Snake River Plain of the southern part of the state. Grain quality and malting characteristics in addition to yields are key factors influencing production. While the importance of available nitrogen (N) and irrigation have been established, the interaction of these inputs has not been deeply investigated. To address this, we conducted research at the Kimberly R&E Center, ID arranged in a RCBD to determine yield and quality as affected by N application rate (0, 56, 112, 168 kg N ha-1) and irrigation cutoff timings with irrigation managed at 100% evapotranspiration (ET) until the crop growth stages of, F10: Feekes 10.0; F11.2: Feekes 11.2; and +7F11.2: +7d Feekes. Both N fertilization and irrigation cutoff timing affected tested grain, straw, and malt characteristics. Only minor differences were measured between F11.2 and +7F11.2 irrigation cutoff timings indicating irrigations past F11.2 were generally not beneficial. Application of N at 56 kg N ha-1 maximized yield in the study but greater predicted yields were determined from the fitted model and did not result in grain or malt quality characteristics outside of the range acceptable for malting. Results warrant further investigations into increased N applications to achieve higher yields while maintaining malt quality. Grain protein was well correlated to malt characteristics under varying N rates and irrigation cutoff timings. The results of this study provide evidence of the effects of irrigation cutoff timing and N management on grain yield and quality, barley straw, and malt characteristics that are critical for establishing appropriate fertilizer-N recommendations and irrigation management strategies in malting barley in Idaho.