Location: Subtropical Horticulture ResearchTitle: Cacao mild mosaic virus (CaMMV) and Cacao yellow vein banding virus (CYVBV): genus Badnavirus
|UMAHARAN, PATHMANATHAN - Cocoa Research Unit - Trinidad|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/10/2021
Publication Date: 1/1/2022
Citation: Puig, A.S., Umaharan, P. 2021. Cacao mild mosaic virus (CaMMV) and cacao yellow vein banding virus (CYVBV): genus Badnavirus. In End, M.J., Daymond, A.J., Hadley, P., editors. Technical guidelines for the safe movement of cacao germplasm. Revised from the FAO/IPGRI Technical Guidelines No. 20 (Fourth Update). Rome, Italy: Global Cacao Genetic Resources Network (CacaoNet), Bioversity International. p, 27-33.
Technical Abstract: Although viruses have been confirmed in cacao on every continent where the crop is cultivated, most research has focused on the viruses present in West Africa. Viruses on cacao were reported in Trinidad in 1943, and are named Cacao mild mosaic virus (CaMMV) and Cacao yellow vein banding virus (CYVBV). They were present throughout the island until the 1950s, when the government initiated a tree removal program targeting virus-infected cacao. After decades with no reports of symptomatic material, both viruses were found in cacao plants in 2007. Recently, CaMMV was detected in Puerto Rico and Brazil, indicating it may be widespread in the Americas. Virus-like symptoms have been reported in other cocoa growing areas in the region, including Colombia, Dominican Republic, and Venezuela but have not been as yet characterized. Badnaviruses infecting cacao trees in Sri Lanka and Indonesia were recently confirmed, and are described here.