Location: Subtropical Horticulture Research
Project Number: 6038-21000-025-000-D
Project Type: In-House Appropriated
Start Date: Jun 21, 2018
End Date: Jun 20, 2023
1. Evaluate (phenotype) cacao genetic resources for host-plant resistance to the priority diseases black pod, frosty pod, and witches’ broom. Record and disseminate evaluation data via the project’s website, the Cacao Genome Database, the International Cocoa Germplasm Database, and/or other data sources. 1A. Develop artificial inoculation protocols and phenotyping techniques to assess resistance to Phytophthora canker in clones from Ecuador. 1B. Assess Ecuadorian and NPGS cacao germplasm in Puerto Rico for resistance to BP and make data available via cacao databases. 1C. Screen Ecuadorian clones for FP resistance in Colombia and make data available via cacao databases. 1D. Evaluate Ecuadorian clones for resistance to WB in Colombia, Trinidad, and Brazil and make data available via cacao databases. 2. Develop and apply more effective genetic tools, including genetic markers, association mapping, genome-wide selection, and/or experimental populations, for breeding cacao genetic resources with host-plant resistance to the priority diseases black pod, frosty pod, and witches’ broom. 2A. Use exome capture methodology to develop SNP markers from diverse cacao germplasm and utilize them for screening segregating populations and germplasm exhibiting resistance to BP, FP, and WB, as well as desirable horticultural and quality traits. 2B. Utilize genome-wide selection (GWS) models to predict genomic breeding values (GBV) in full-sib family cacao crosses. 3. Breed and release cacao genetic resources with increased host-plant resistance to the priority diseases: black pod, frosty pod, and witches’ broom.
Currently, around thirty percent of the world annual cacao production is lost to pest and diseases. In the Americas, the major losses are caused by three diseases: black pod rot (BPR), caused by several different Phytophthora species of which P. palmivora is the most common, frosty pod rot (FPR), caused by Moniliophthora roreri, and witches’ broom (WB), caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa. Presently over 250 cacao germplasm accessions are available at the USDA-ARS-TARS in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. However, most of this germplasm has not been evaluated for resistance to these diseases. Screening protocols for selecting germplasm resistance to Phytophthora canker and BPR will be used to select accessions resistant to these diseases. In addition, selected accessions from the USDA-ARS/MARS/INIAP collaborative breeding program will be sent to Colombia for evaluation to BPR, FPR and WB. Also due to the presence of different WB pathotypes in Trinidad and Brazil, these accessions will be also screened for resistance in these countries. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), both as single base pair substitutions and single base pair insertions/deletions (indels) are the most common sequence differences found between alleles. Due to the sequence of two cacao genomes, Matina 1-6 (Amelonado) and B97-61/B2 (Criollo), methodologies such as whole-exome targeted sequencing have been developed and this has facilitated SNP discovery. Once SNPs have been identified, they can be employed to genotype cacao accessions previously screened for disease resistance as well as populations segregating for disease resistance. Cacao breeding is a slow process, due to the tree’s long reproductive cycle. Therefore, the development of SNP markers and the application of genomic-assisted breeding methodologies will be implemented to strengthen the effectiveness of the selection process. Since FPR and WB are not present in Hawaii and Puerto Rico as well as other cacao producing countries in the Americas, preventive breeding for these diseases will be extremely useful.