|ANCONA, SIMONA - University Of Bari|
|DE MASTRO, GIUSPPE - University Of Bari|
|RUTA, CLAUDIA - University Of Bari|
Submitted to: Agronomy Journal
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/4/2021
Publication Date: 6/8/2021
Citation: Ancona, S., De Mastro, G., Jenderek, M.M., Ruta, C. 2021. Micropropagation supports reintroduction of an Apulian artichoke landrace in sustainable cropping systems. Agronomy Journal. 11(6). Article e1169. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11061169.
Interpretive Summary: Italy has many historical landraces of artichoke germplasm. Some of them are cultivated only on small family farms and are close to extinction due to a pressure on homogeneous commercial cultivars. This project established an in vitro propagation and a greenhouse acclimation method using mycorrhizal inoculates for “Troianella”, an Apulian endangered landrace. The method may provide high quality planting material for sustainable field production and save the landrace from disappearance in the artichoke genetic pool.
Technical Abstract: Artichoke [Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus (L.) Fiori] is a perennial plant of the Asteraceae’s family native to the Mediterranean basin. Italy has rich artichoke biodiversity, but many landraces are subjected to genetic erosion caused by increasing use of commercial varieties that are more homogenous in production. An Apulian landrace “Troianella” was established in vitro to valorise and provide high-quality material for propagation in nurseries and subsequently for cultivation in production fields. The shoot proliferation was tested on four different growth media adding sucrose (20 g l-1) and cytokinin (-6-benzylamminopurine (BAP-0.05 mg l-1). The best result was achieved using MS519-A medium. The root induction was obtained with Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA-10 mg l-1) and increasing sucrose concentration (30 g l-1). Plants derived from tissue culture were acclimatized in greenhouse using mycorrhizal symbiosis with three mycorrhizal inoculants (Septoglomus viscosum, Funelliformis mosseae and Symbivit, a commercial mix) in sterile substrate without fertilizer application. After three months, plants showed different growth rates with the best plant appearance using S. viscosum fungus but not significantly different from the shoot length of plants cultivated on a commercial mycorrhizal fungi mix. The results allowed to define an efficient protocol for the micropropagation of the endangered “Troianella” landrace, providing high quality material for new fields through a sustainable production.