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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Ames, Iowa » National Animal Disease Center » Food Safety and Enteric Pathogens Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #384615

Research Project: Intestinal Microbial Ecology and Metagenomic Strategies to Reduce Antibiotic Resistance and Foodborne Pathogens

Location: Food Safety and Enteric Pathogens Research

Title: Turicibacter bilis sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from the chicken eggshell and swine ileum

item MAKI, JOEL - Orise Fellow
item Looft, Torey

Submitted to: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/1/2021
Publication Date: 1/27/2022
Citation: Maki, J., Looft, T.P. 2022. Turicibacter bilis sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from the chicken eggshell and swine ileum. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 72(1). Article e0.005153.

Interpretive Summary: Livestock and poultry production in the US, is responsible for feeding a growing population. Understanding how microbial communities in the intestinal tracts of food animals impact animal health, production, and food safety is critical to supporting the industry and food supply. In this study, we describe a newly isolated bacterial species (Turicibacter bilis), which is a common inhabitant of the intestinal tract of several livestock species and the eggshells of chickens. The characterization of T. bilis provides the first biochemical and genomic information on the genus, and adds new data to what is known about the group of bacteria related to T. bilis. This bacterium may impact poultry and swine growth by modifying compounds produced by the animal (bile) in the intestinal tract and potentially impacting digestion. Studies like this broaden our understanding of the bacteria in the intestinal tracts of livestock species, show how new species relates to other similar organisms, and provide insights that can be used to improve animal nutrition and health.

Technical Abstract: Three novel, anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive bacteria were isolated from the eggshell of two separate white leghorn chicken flocks and the ileum of a healthy pig, and designated MMM721T, ISU324, and PIG517 respectively. Cells were pleomorphic and capable of forming long chains of rods or coccoid clusters. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences identified these strains to be within the genus Turicibacter, of which only one species, T. sanguinis, has been formally described. However, whole genome sequencing of novel isolates returned digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) of 22.5% and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values of 76.4% (ANIb) and 86.0% (ANIm), indicating divergence between the type strain MMM721 and T. sanguinis, suggesting the strains represented a novel species. The major fatty acid methyl esters of the type strain, MMM721T, were C16:0, C18:1 '7c, and C18:0. The strains produced mainly lactate, with smaller amounts of acetate and butyrate being produced. Together, these data indicate that MMM721T, along with ISU324 and PIG517, represent a novel species within the genus Turicibacter. We propose the name Turicibacter bilis sp. nov. for the species. The type strain is MMM721T (=ATCC TSD-238T =CCUG 74757T).