Location: Soybean and Nitrogen Fixation ResearchTitle: Agronomic performance of high oleic, low linolenic soybean in Tennessee
|WILLETTE, ALISON - University Of Tennessee|
|BHANDARI, HEM - University Of Tennessee|
|SAMS, CARL - University Of Tennessee|
|CHEN, FENG - University Of Tennessee|
|SYKES, VIRGINIA - University Of Tennessee|
|SMALLWOOD, CHRIS - University Of Tennessee|
|LI, ZENGLU - University Of Georgia|
|PANTALONE, VINCENT - University Of Tennessee|
Submitted to: Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/7/2021
Publication Date: 7/26/2021
Citation: Willette, A., Fallen, B.D., Bhandari, H., Sams, C., Chen, F., Sykes, V., Smallwood, C., Bilyeu, K.D., Li, Z., Pantalone, V. 2021. Agronomic performance of high oleic, low linolenic soybean in Tennessee. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. https://doi.org/10.1002/aocs.12517.
Interpretive Summary: Soybean oil is an important commodity making up 61% of the vegetable oil market in the US. Great importance has been placed on making soybean oil healthier and more heat stable. Since the 1940’s scientists have devised ways of improving oil quality by breeding low linolenic oil soybeans, using metal chelates, and hydrogenation to eliminate rancid odors and increase oxidative stability. As the uses of hydrogenation and metal chelation have been found to be costly to human health, biotechnology and plant breeding have become primary methods for reducing linolenic acid in soybean oil. Typical soybeans contain approximately 80 g kg-1 to 120 g kg-1 linolenic acid and 240g kg-1 of oleic acid. In an effort to accommodate the need for high quality oil, the United Soybean Board (USB) introduced an industry standard for a high oleic acid greater than 750 g kg-1 and linolenic acid less than 30 g kg-1 oil. In 2017 and 2018, a study was conducted across multiple Tennessee locations to identify agronomic traits associated with changes in the fatty acid profile of soybeans lines with an increase oleic acid content and a reduced linolenic acid content, as per the industry standard identified by the USB. Analysis indicated no yield drag or other negative agronomic traits associated with the high oleic low linolenic soybean lines evaluated in this study.
Technical Abstract: Soybean oil hydrogenation stabilizes the linolenic acid molecule to prevent the oil from becoming rancid, however health reports have indicated trans-fat caused by hydrogenation, is not generally regarded as safe. Typical soybeans contain approximately 80 g kg-1 to 120 g kg-1 linolenic acid and 240g kg-1 of oleic acid. In an effort to accommodate the need for high quality oil, the United Soybean Board introduced an industry standard for a high oleic acid greater than 750 g kg-1 and linolenic acid less than 30 g kg-1 oil. By introducing mutations in the soybean plant at FAD2-1A, FAD2-1B, FAD3A, and FAD3C loci, seed oil will not require hydrogenation to prevent oxidation and produce high quality oil. Newly developed breeding lines were evaluated to identify agronomic traits associated with mutations in FAD3A and FAD3C loci, while holding FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B constant in the mutant (high oleic) state. Soybean lines were assessed for yield and oil quality based on mutations at FAD2-1 and FAD3 loci. Variations of wild type and mutant genotypes were compared at FAD3A and FAD3C loci. Analysis using a generalized linear mixed model (GLIMMIX) in SAS 9.4, indicated no yield drag or other negative agronomic traits associated with the high oleic low linolenic genotype. All four mutations of fad2-1A, fad2-1B, fad3A and fad3C fatty acid desaturate genes were determined as necessary to produce a soybean with the new industry standard of >750 g kg-1 oleic and < 30 g kg-1 linolenic acid.