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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Tifton, Georgia » Crop Genetics and Breeding Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #381788

Research Project: Development of High-Yielding, High-Oleic Peanut Cultivars or Germplasm with Tolerance to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

Location: Crop Genetics and Breeding Research

Title: Morphological and reproductive characterization of nascent allotetraploids cross-compatible with cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

Author
item LEVINSON, C - University Of Georgia
item CHU, Y - University Of Georgia
item LUO, X - University Of Georgia
item STALKER, H - North Carolina State University
item GAO, D - University Of Georgia
item Holbrook, Carl - Corley
item OZIAS-AKINS, P - University Of Georgia

Submitted to: Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/1/2021
Publication Date: 3/21/2021
Citation: Levinson, C.M., Chu, Y., Luo, X., Stalker, H.T., Gao, D., Holbrook Jr, C.C., Ozias-Akins, P. 2021. Morphological and reproductive characterization of nascent allotetraploids cross-compatible with cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-021-01161-0.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-021-01161-0

Interpretive Summary: Peanut variety improvement is limited by a narrow genetic base. Our peanut pre-breeding program seeks to overcome this obstacle by incorporating genetic variability from wild, diploid peanut species through interspecific hybridizations. The selection of diploids was mainly based on their strong, diverse resistance to many insect and disease pests. In this study, four allotetraploid interspecific hybrids were created and morphologically characterized. These germplasm resources will be released so that further characterization and utility in peanut breeding will become possible to improve peanut production.

Technical Abstract: Peanut cultivar improvement is limited by a narrow genetic base. However, this obstacle can be circumvented by incorporating phenotypic variability from wild, diploid Arachis species through interspecific hybridizations. In this study, four allotetraploid interspecific hybrids IpaCor4x (A. ipaensis x A. correntina 9530), IpaDur4x (A. ipensis x A. duranensis 30600), IpaSten4x (A. ipaensis x A. stenosperma V10309), and ValSten4x (A. valida 30011 x A.stenosperma V10209) were created and morphologically characterized through the following parameters: flower count, flower size, flower banner pigmentation, leaf area and weight, leaf hairiness, main stem height, internode length, reproductive to vegetative node ratio, biomass, 100 pod weight, and 100 seed weight. For every trait, except for flower banner absorption at 380 nm, at least one or more allotetraploid differed from the cultivated peanut control. In general, these allotetraploids had a greater production of flowers during the growing season, larger flowers, and larger and hairier leaves, taller main stems, longer primary laterals, longer internodes, lower ratios of reproductive to vegetative nodes, heavier plant body masses, and smaller seeds and pods. This phenotypic diversity can be utilized in ornamental and forage breeding, while for oil and food crop breeding, this diversity will likely need to be selected against while desirable traits such as disease and insect resistance and abiotic stress tolerances are maintained.