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ARS Home » Plains Area » Stillwater, Oklahoma » Wheat, Peanut, and Other Field Crops Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #378012

Research Project: Genetic Improvement of Peanut for Production in the Southwest United States Region

Location: Wheat, Peanut, and Other Field Crops Research

Title: Comparison of field emergence and thermal gradient table germination rates of seed from high oleic and low oleic near isogenic peanut lines

Author
item Chamberlin, Kelly
item GREY, TIMOTHY - University Of Georgia
item PUPPALA, NAVEEN - New Mexico State University
item Holbrook, Carl - Corley
item ISLEIB, TOM - North Carolina State University
item DUNNE, JEFFREY - North Carolina State University
item Dean, Lisa
item HURDLE, NICOLAS - University Of Georgia
item PAYTON, MARK - Oklahoma State University

Submitted to: Peanut Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/6/2021
Publication Date: 12/13/2021
Citation: Chamberlin, K.D., Grey, T.L., Puppala, N., Holbrook, C.C., Isleib, T.G., Dunne, J., Dean, L.O., Hurdle, N.L., Payton, M.E. 2021. Comparison of field emergence and thermal gradient table germination rates of seed from high oleic and low oleic near isogenic peanut lines. Peanut Science. 48:131-143.

Interpretive Summary: Product stability has been shown to increase up to 10-fold when high-oleic peanuts are used ,and thus a consistent supply of high oleic peanuts is important to the peanut industry. The percentage of U.S. crop that is high-oleic continues to increase, but many producers are resistant to grow high-oleic cultivars due to the uncertainty of the high-oleic effect on agronomic traits, such as seed germination, yield and grade. In this study we examined the effect of the high oleic trait on peanut seed germination and agronomic performance. Experiments were conducted from 2017 to 2019 in field plots and in the laboratory on a thermal gradient table. Entries from all four peanut market types were included and tested in four geographically distinct regions of the U.S. The results of this study show that high oleic peanut cultivars demonstrate a visual, but not statistically significant, delay in field emergence and in thermal gradient table germination. This germination lag does not impact the overall performance of high oleic genotypes with regards to yield or grade, but may cause concern to peanut producers when they evaluate field emergence during early stand monitoring. Results from these experiments will increase the understanding of the agronomic properties of high-oleic peanut cultivars and could influence the modification of standard protocols used by state agencies to test high-oleic peanut germination for registered seed quality labeling.

Technical Abstract: Oxidative stability is an important factor considered by those in the peanut manufacturing industry. Product stability has been shown to increase up to seven-fold when high-oleic peanuts are used. The percentage of US crop that is high-oleic continues to increase, but many producers are reluctant to grow high-oleic cultivars due to the uncertainty of the high-oleic effect on agronomic traits, such as seed germination, yield and grade. Experiments were designed and conducted to examine the effect of the high oleic trait on peanut seed germination in field plots and in the laboratory on a thermal gradient table. Genotypes used in these experiments included cultivars or breeding lines from each peanut market-type along with their near-isogenic, high oleic counterparts. Field emergence, or germination, was recorded in the field in 4 geographically different regions, as well as in the laboratory on a thermal gradient table. Thermal gradient table experimental results demonstrated a lag in germination in high oleic genotypes compared to their normal oleic counterparts in all markettypes, but the effect was lowest in the runner-type pair. Results from these experiments increase the understanding of the agronomic properties of high-oleic peanut cultivars and could influence the modification of standard protocols used by state agencies to test high-oleic peanut germination for registered seed quality labeling. Furthermore, this study indicates that although producers may experience delayed germination from high oleic seed compared to low oleic counterparts, this germination lag is overcome by 21 days post-planting and does not negatively impact the agronomical performance of high oleic cultivars.