Location: Sustainable Water Management ResearchTitle: Effect of irrigation and planting geometry on cotton fiber quality and seed composition
|PINNAMANENI, SRINIVASA - Oak Ridge Institute For Science And Education (ORISE)|
Submitted to: Plants
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/29/2020
Publication Date: 1/20/2021
Citation: Pinnamaneni, S.R., Anapalli, S.S., Sui, R., Bellaloui, N., Reddy, K.N. 2021. Effect of irrigation and planting geometry on cotton fiber quality and seed composition. Plants. 4(2):1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s42397-020-00078-w.
Interpretive Summary: Production of high quality cotton fiber results in higher market prices for the grower. The United States dairy industry significantly depends on a protein-rich cotton seed for cattle diet. Certain agricultural management practices have been reported to impact both the fiber and seed quality of cotton. Scientists with the USDA ARS Sustainable Water Management Research Unit, Crop Genetics Research Unit, and Crop Production Systems Research Unit, Stoneville, Mississippi, studied the effects of planting and irrigation techniques on field plots in the lower Mississippi Delta, USA, in 2018 and 2019. Results of the study indicated that the fineness of the cotton fibers were negatively affected by irrigation as it reduced 11-12% compared to a rainfed-only crop. Effects of cotton seed planting played a minor role in determining fiber quality traits like cotton fiber fineness and smoothness. Irrigation treatments recorded significantly lower seed protein content by 3-4 % compared to rainfed-only plots, while oil content significantly increased by 6-10 %. Results of the study indicate a potential for improving cotton fiber and seed qualities by managing irrigation and planting methods in cotton production systems in the Mississippi Delta region.
Technical Abstract: Cotton fiber quality and seed composition play vital roles in the economics of cotton production systems. The objective of this research was to examine the effects of different levels of irrigation and planting geometries on fiber quality and seed composition of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). A two-year study was conducted in 2018 and 2019 on a Dundee silt loam soil in the Southeast USA with a warm and humid climate. Irrigation treatments were, irrigating every furrow (FI, full irrigation) and alternate furrow (HI, half irrigation), and no irrigation (RF, rainfed), and planting geometries were a single-row (SR) and twin-row (TR) on ridges spaced 102 cm apart. Fiber quality was tested by using the High-Volume Instrument (HVI) and Advanced Fiber Information Systems (AFIS). Seed protein, oil, and fiber were estimated using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. The results showed irrigation and planting treatments played a significant role in fiber quality and seed composition. Across irrigation treatments, significant differences were seen in fiber properties, including micronaire, uniformity, upper half mean length (UHML), strength, yellowness, short fiber, upper quartile length (UQL), fineness, maturity ratio, and neps. The micronaire was negatively affected by irrigation as FI-SR, FI-TR, HI-SR, and HI-TR had recorded 11-12% over the RF-SR and TR treatments. The planting geometry played a minor role in determining fiber quality traits like micronaire and nep count. Irrigation treatments recorded significantly lower protein content by 3-4 % than rainfed, while oil content significantly increased by 6-10 %. The results of the study indicate a potential for improving cotton fiber and seed qualities by managing irrigation and planting geometries in cotton production systems in the Mississippi Delta region.