Submitted to: International Journal of Materials Science and Applications
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/20/2020
Publication Date: 10/16/2020
Citation: Chang, S., Condon, B., Nam, S. 2020. Development of flame-resistant cotton fabrics with casein using pad-dry-cure and supercritical fluids methods. International Journal of Materials Science and Applications. 9(4):53-61. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijmsa.20200904.11.
Interpretive Summary: This research has been shown intumescent flame retardant for milk protein which can be used to bring flame-retardancy to cotton fabrics. It is particularly useful to design and develop new environmentally friendly phosphorous and nitrogen containing milk protein, casein, using scupercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and traditional pad-dry-cure processing that enable textiles. We achieved this ultimate result and in the process explained and employed standard test methods to verify our results. The new compound and their innovative technologies such as supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) processing will be of interest and use to professionals engaged in new materials designing in textile industries to create new marketable uses for cotton fibers and fabrics to serve emerging needs.
Technical Abstract: Traditional pad-dry-cure (PDC) and supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) methods were used to study the effectiveness of cotton fabrics treated with casein from bovine milk and eco-friendly inorganic materials, urea and diammonium phosphate. Trials were completed successfully. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), 45° angle and vertical flammability (clothing textiles test) and limiting oxygen index (LOI) tests were carried out for the treated cotton fabrics. When the treated fabrics were tested using the 45° angle flame, the ignited fabrics self-extinguished and left behind a streak of char. Treated higher add-on fabrics were neither consumed by flame, nor produced glowing embers upon self-extinguishing. All untreated cotton fabrics showed limiting oxygen index (LOI) values of about 18 % oxygen in nitrogen. For formulations with casein, urea and diammonium phosphate, LOI values of treated fabrics were 29-40 % oxygen in nitrogen when add-on values for the formulation were 9.5-18.7wt%. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope (SEM) was employed to characterize the chemical structure on the treated fabrics, as well as, the surface morphology of char areas of treated and untreated fabrics. The results indicate that fabrics treated with casein are flame resistant. The treated fabrics exhibited improved thermal stability, as evidenced by increased ignition times and lower heat release rates. The results of this study show that casein coated flame-resistant fabrics can be readily applied to textile fabrics using a continuous process that is ideal for commercial and industrial applications.