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ARS Home » Plains Area » Stillwater, Oklahoma » Wheat, Peanut, and Other Field Crops Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #376550

Research Project: Genetic Improvement of Peanut for Production in the Southwest United States Region

Location: Wheat, Peanut, and Other Field Crops Research

Title: Genotypic characterization of the U.S. peanut core collection

Author
item OTYAMA, P - Iowa State University
item KULKARNI, R - Iowa State University
item Chamberlin, Kelly
item OZIAS-AKINS, P - University Of Georgia
item CHU, Y - University Of Georgia
item Lincoln, Lori
item MACDONALD, G - University Of Florida
item ANGLIN, N - International Potato Center
item DASH, S - National Center For Genome Resources
item BERTOLI, D - University Of Georgia
item FERNANDEZ-BACA, D - Iowa State University
item Graham, Michelle
item Cannon, Steven
item Cannon, Ethalinda

Submitted to: American Peanut Research and Education Society Proceedings
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/15/2020
Publication Date: 7/15/2020
Citation: Otyama, P.I., Kulkarni, R., Chamberlin, K.D., Ozias-Akins, P., Chu, Y., Lincoln, L.M., Macdonald, G.E., Anglin, N.L., Dash, S., Bertoli, D., Fernandez-Baca, D., Graham, M.A., Cannon, S.B., Cannon, E.K. 2020. Genotypic characterization of the U.S. peanut core collection [abstract]. In proceedings: American Peanut Research and Education Society, July 2020. Available: https://apresinc.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/OtyamaPI-Abstract-2020.pdf.

Interpretive Summary: Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an important oil, food, and feed crop worldwide. The US peanut collection contains 8,982 accessions. From these accessions, 812 were selected as a core collection on the basis of phenotype and country of origin. The present study reports genotyping results for the core collection. We found that the genotypic diversity of the core is mostly captured in 5 genotypic clusters, which have some correspondence with botanical variety and market type. There is little genetic clustering by country of origin, reflecting peanut's rapid global dispersion in the 18th and 19th centuries. A genetic cluster associated with the hypogaea/aequatoriana/peruviana varieties, with accessions coming primarily from Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador, is consistent with these having been the earliest landraces. Comparisons with the diploid progenitors suggest that subgenome exchange contributes to ongoing accumulation of diversity in peanut.

Technical Abstract: Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an important oil, food, and feed crop worldwide. The USDA peanut germplasm collection currently contains 8,982 accessions. In the 1990s, 812 accessions were selected as a core collection based on phenotype and country of origin. The present study reports genotyping results for the entire available core collection. Each accession was genotyped with Arachis_Axiom2 SNP array, yielding 14,430 high-quality, informative SNPs across the collection. Additionally, a subset of the core collection was replicated, using between two and five seeds per accession to assess heterogeneity within these accessions. The genotypic diversity of the core is mostly captured in five genotypic clusters, which have some correspondence with botanical variety and market type. There is little genetic clustering by country of origin, reflecting peanut's rapid global dispersion in the 18th and 19th centuries. A genetic cluster associated with the hypogaea/aequatoriana/peruviana varieties, with accessions coming primarily from Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador, is consistent with these having been the earliest landraces. The genetics, phenotypic characteristics, and archaeological records are all consistent with previous reports of tetraploid peanut originating in Southeast Bolivia. The present genotype results indicate an early genetic radiation, followed by regional distribution of major genetic classes through South America, and then global dissemination that retains much of the early genetic diversity in peanut. Comparison of the genotype data relative to alleles from the diploid progenitors also indicates that sub-genome exchanges, both large and small, have been major contributors to the genetic diversity in peanut.