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Research Project: Genetic Mechanisms and Improvement of Insect Resistance in Wheat, Barley, and Sorghum

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Title: Omics approaches to plant genetics and crop improvement

Author
item Huang, Yinghua
item HUANG, JIAN - Oklahoma State University

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/20/2019
Publication Date: 3/1/2019
Citation: Huang, Y., Huang, J. 2019. Omics approaches to plant genetics and crop improvement. Meeting Abstract. p. 84.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Omics sciences represent new disciplines for comprehensive studies of an organism at various molecular levels, and these newly developing omics technologies primarily focus analysis of DNA, mRNA, proteins and metabolites in individuals of life. Thus, the omics sciences have four major components: genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, and nowadays the integrated omics technologies are revolutionizing the ways we study biology and biological systems. While omic studies in the areas of plant genetics and crop improvement are relatively new, these advancing technologies are the rapidly expanding areas of research and enable a system biology approach toward a better understanding of the sophisticated relationships between genes, proteins and metabolites and the resulted phenotypes. For example, information generated using those technologies allow us to identify genes and related expression products, i.e. proteins and metabolites, that are responsible for host plant defense against harmful insects and diseases and to identify important regulatory networks that are governing innate genetic mechanisms to protect plants from attack by external biotic and abiotic attacks, thus offering valuable information for the development of now crops with rationale design. These powerful omics technologies can complement the traditional crop breeding methods to facilitate crop improvement and efficient development of our food crops that are resistant to various stresses but give higher yield and better nutritional value. These cutting-edge technologies are leading to a true application of molecular knowledges in plant biology and modern sustainable agriculture.