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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Tifton, Georgia » Crop Genetics and Breeding Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #363422

Research Project: Genetic Improvement and Cropping Systems of Warm-season Grasses for Forage, Feedstocks, Syrup, and Turf

Location: Crop Genetics and Breeding Research

Title: Yields of sesame vary dramatically under rain-fed conditions on marginal lands in Thailand

item BUNPHAN, DARIKA - Mahasarakham University
item Knoll, Joseph - Joe
item Anderson, William - Bill

Submitted to: Australian Journal of Crop Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/1/2019
Publication Date: 12/15/2019
Citation: Bunphan, D., Knoll, J.E., Anderson, W.F. 2019. Yields of sesame vary dramatically under rain-fed conditions on marginal lands in Thailand. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 13(12):2075-2085.

Interpretive Summary: Sesame is an important crop for farmers in Thailand. It is important to determine the most appropriate cultivars for specific regions, soil types and climates, so that farmers can best determine the cultivars to plant. A test was conducted at two locations in Thailand to determine the highest yields and plant growth characteristics under two very differences environments. Yield, branches/plants, plant height and number of capsules/plant were all recorded. Significant differences were found for all plant characteristics. At one location, high branches /plant and plant height corresponded with high yield (cv. UB3). However, at the second location under rainfed conditions, high yields did not correspond with high branches/plant. These results will help determine which traits are needed for best yields under different stress environments in Thailand.

Technical Abstract: The objectives of this research were to evaluate grain yield, related traits and some agronomic performances of 15 sesame cultivars under rain-fed conditions on marginal land of Northeast in Thailand. The experiments were conducted at two locations; Maha Sarakham and Buriram provinces in Northeast Thailand during the summer of 2018. The fields were arranged in a RCBD with 4 replications and 15 sesame cultivars. Significant differences were observed for all traits at both locations except SPAD chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR) at 90 DAP in Maha Sarakham. Significant differences were found between locations for yield and some of the yield components. It appeared that pod/plant, plant height, number of branches, and plant biomass were the most important components attributing to yield. Harvest index was negatively correlated with yield. Heritability estimates were the highest for plant height (0.88), branches per plant (0.92), pod width (0.95), and pod length (0.89). At Maha Sarakahm, cv. UB3 had the greatest grain yield (1058.03 kg ha-1), and was among the highest for number of branches/plant, plant height, and number of capsules/plant, whereas KKU1 had the highest harvest index (43.62%). Mahasarakham60 had the highest SCMR value at 60 and 75 DAP and also total chlorophyll content at 60, 75 and 90 DAP. At Buriram cv. Buriram had the highest number of branches/plant, plant height SCMR, total chlorophyll content and number of capsules/plant, but did not have a high grain yield (334.44 kg ha-1). UB1 had the highest grain yield (545.63 kg ha-1) at Buriram. Environmental factors affected agronomic performances and grain yield in sesame grown under the rain-fed condition and marginal land in Thailand. If breeding under various environmental conditions, traits such as plant height and number of branches per plant would achieve the highest gains.