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ARS Home » Plains Area » Fargo, North Dakota » Edward T. Schafer Agricultural Research Center » Cereal Crops Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #356966

Research Project: Enhancement of Hard Spring Wheat, Durum, and Oat Quality

Location: Cereal Crops Research

Title: Quality characteristics and protein composition of durum wheat cultivars released in the last 50 years.

Author
item Malalgoda, Maneka - North Dakota State University
item Ohm, Jae-bom
item Manthey, Frank - North Dakota State University
item Elias, Elias - North Dakota State University
item Simsek, Senay - North Dakota State University

Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/6/2019
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Most US durum wheat is grown in the state of North Dakota. Thus, breeding efforts in the region have resulted in many durum wheat cultivars being released in the last decades. The main goals of durum wheat breeding are to improve grain yield, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, as well as end-use quality characteristics. In this study, thirty two durum wheat cultivars released between 1956 and 2013 were analyzed for changes in end-use quality characteristics, protein composition and their association with improvements in durum wheat quality characteristics. The results indicated that certain durum quality parameters, such as kernel weight, dough mixing properties and pasta making characteristics improved over the last 50 years of durum wheat breeding. The results did not show increases in total protein quantity; however, changes in protein composition were observed. The changes in protein composition were positively associated with improvements in dough and pasta cooking quality traits seen in durum wheat cultivars released in recent years. This study specifically identified a protein fraction, which contributes towards favorable dough and pasta quality characteristics. This information would be very helpful in screening durum varieties that have good mixing and pasta cooking quality characteristics in durum wheat breeding program and pasta industry.

Technical Abstract: Most US durum wheat is grown in the state of North Dakota. Thus, breeding efforts in the region have resulted in many durum wheat cultivars being released in the last decades. The main goals of durum wheat breeding are increased yield, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, as well as improved end-use quality characteristics. In this study, thirty two durum wheat cultivars released between 1956 and 2013 were analyzed for changes in end-use quality characteristics, protein composition and their association with improvements in durum wheat quality characteristics. The results indicated that certain durum quality parameters, such as kernel weight, dough mixing properties and pasta making characteristics improved over the last 50 years of durum wheat breeding. The results did not show increases in total protein quantity; however, changes in protein composition were observed. SDS extractable LMW polymeric proteins and gliadins decreased while; SDS unextractable polymeric proteins increased over the years. These changes in protein composition were positively correlated with improvements in dough and pasta cooking quality traits seen in durum wheat cultivars released in recent years. In conclusion, this study shows that increases in SDS unextractable polymeric proteins contributes towards favorable dough and pasta quality characteristics.