|MEMON, AYAZ - University Of Sindh|
|MAHAR, INAMULLAH - University Of Sindh|
|MEMON, ROOMIA - University Of Sindh|
|MEMON, NAJMA - University Of Sindh|
|BHANGER, MUHAMMAD - University Of Sindh|
|Luthria, Devanand - Dave|
Submitted to: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/30/2019
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Three ground wheat cultivars were fractionated into five different particle sizes fractions (i.e. <1.180 to >0.425, <0.425 to >0.300, <0.300 to >0.150, < 0.150 to >0.075 mm, and < 0.075 mm). All fractions were analyzed separately for total protein, crude fiber crude fat, soluble carbohydrate, moisture, ash, energy and seven phenolic acid content. The results showed that particle size has significant influence on all the above analysis. Pearson correlation showed negative correlation between particle size and carbohydrate and energy content and positive correlation with phenolic acids content. This research will be of valuable interest to grain processing and nutrition industries. This work was done in collaboration with a student who visited form Pakistan to my laboratory for training at USDA.
Technical Abstract: In the present study, the effect of particle size (PS) on phenolic acid content and proximate composition (moisture, ash, protein, total fat, crude fiber and total carbohydrates) of whole-wheat flour (WWF) was determined. Five different particle sizes fractions. <1.180 to >0.425, <0.425 to >0.300, <0.300 to >0.150, < 0.150 to >0.075 mm, and < 0.075 mm (ASTM recommended), of three commercial wheat varieties (Benazir, TJ-83, Imdad) were used for the present study. Total phenolic acid was determined using HPLC-DAD detections after base hydrolysis of the samples. Proximate composition of each particle size (PS) fraction of all three wheat flours was determined by recommended AOAC methods. In all wheat varieties, maximum quantities of total phenolic acids (162.12-554.16 mg/100g) were obtained from <1.180 to >0.425 mm PS fractions. The maximum moisture content (8.12-8.98 g/100g) was observed in the two lower PS (< 0.150 mm) fraction while ash and protein were highest in the largest PS (<1.180 to >0.425) i.e. 2.10-2.77 mg/100g and 10.9-11.8 mg/100g respectively. The total fat (0.24-0.53 mg/100g) and crude fiber (0.40-0.59 mg/100g) were highest in <0.425 to >0.300 PS fraction of all wheat varieties. The carbohydrates (g/100g) and energy (kilo calories) were observed in the average range from 77.4-79.9, 359.5-362.7 for Imdad; 79.7-84.3, 362.5-364.9 for Benazir; and 78.4-81.1, 360.0-363.5 for TJ-83 wheat varieties. Pearson correlation showed negative correlation between particle size and carbohydrate and energy content and positive correlation with phenolic acids content. This study concludes that particle size has direct influence on the distribution of phenolic acids, carbohydrate, protein, crude fiber, ash, crude fat and moisture in the three wheat varieties.