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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Davis, California » Western Human Nutrition Research Center » Obesity and Metabolism Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #355795

Research Project: Novel Functions and Biomarkers for Vitamins and Minerals

Location: Obesity and Metabolism Research

Title: Association between early pregnancy vitamin D status and changes in serum lipid profiles throughout pregnancy

Author
item Lepsch, Jaqueline - Universidade Federal Do Rio De Janeiro
item Eschriqui, Ilana - Universidade Federal Do Rio De Janeiro
item Rodriguez-farias, Dayana - Universidade Federal Do Rio De Janeiro
item Vaz, Juliana - Federal University Of Pelotas
item Cunha Figueiredo, Amanda - Universidade Federal Do Rio De Janeiro
item Amorim Adegboye, Amanda - University Of Westminster
item Brito, Alex - University Of Moscow
item Mokhtar, Rana - Boston University
item Allen, Lindsay
item Holick, Michael - Boston University
item Kac, Gilberto - Universidade Federal Do Rio De Janeiro

Submitted to: Metabolism
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/5/2017
Publication Date: 2/12/2017
Citation: Lepsch, J., Eschriqui, I., Rodriguez-Farias, D., Vaz, J.S., Cunha Figueiredo, A.C., Amorim Adegboye, A.R., Brito, A., Mokhtar, R., Allen, L.H., Holick, M.F., Kac, G. 2017. Association between early pregnancy vitamin D status and changes in serum lipid profiles throughout pregnancy. Metabolism. 70:85-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2017.02.004.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2017.02.004

Interpretive Summary: The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between first trimester 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels in serum (a marker of vitamin D status) and changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) concentrations, TG/HDL-c, and TC/HDL-c ratios throughout pregnancy. We hypothesized that low 25(OH)D in the first trimester is associated with lower concentrations of HDL-c and higher LDL-c, TC, TG, TG/HDL-c, and TC/HDL-c ratios throughout pregnancy. A total of 194 women attending a public health center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were recruited in early pregnancy and studied at 3 visits: 5–13 weeks (baseline), 20–26, and 30–36 gestational weeks. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in the first trimester using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. 25(OH)D concentrations were classified as adequate (= 75 nmol/L) or inadequate (< 75 nmol/L). Serum TC, HDL-c, and TG concentrations were measured enzymatically. Statistical longitudinal models were used to evaluate the association between first trimester 25(OH)D status and changes in serum lipid concentrations throughout pregnancy. Confounders adjusted for in the multiple analysis were age, HOMA (an indicator of insulin resistance), early pregnancy body mass index, leisure time physical activity before pregnancy, energy intake, and gestational age. At baseline, 69% of the women had inadequate concentrations of 25(OH)D. Women with 25(OH)D inadequacy had higher mean LDL-c than those with adequate concentrations (91.3 vs. 97.5 mg/dL; P = 0.064) at baseline. TC, HDL-c, LDL-c TG, TG/HDL-c ratios, and TC/HDL-c ratios, increased significantly throughout pregnancy independently of 25(OH)D concentrations. There were direct associations between first trimester 25(OH)D status and changes in TC (ß = 9.53; 95%CI = 1.12–17.94), LDL-c (ß = 9.99; 95% CI = 3.62–16.36) concentrations, and TC/HDL-c ratios (ß = 0.16; 95% CI = 0.01–0.31) throughout pregnancy. We conclude that low plasma 25(OH)D concentrations in early pregnancy were associated with more pronounced changes in TC, LDL-c concentrations, and TC/HDL-c ratios throughout pregnancy. Changes in these cardiovascular markers suggest the importance of ensuring adequate vitamin D status at the beginning of pregnancy.

Technical Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the associations between first trimester 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status and changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) concentrations, TG/HDL-c, and TC/HDL-c ratios throughout pregnancy. We hypothesized that first trimester 25(OH)D inadequacy is associated with lower concentrations of HDL-c and higher LDL-c, TC, TG, TG/HDL-c, and TC/HDL-c ratios throughout pregnancy. Methods: A prospective cohort study with 3 visits at 5–13 (baseline), 20–26, and 30–36 gestational weeks, recruited 194 pregnant women attending a public health care center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in the first trimester using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. 25(OH)D concentrations were classified as adequate (= 75 nmol/L) or inadequate (< 75 nmol/L). Serum TC, HDL-c, and TG concentrations were measured enzymatically. Crude and adjusted longitudinal linear mixed-effects models were employed to evaluate the association between the first trimester 25(OH)D status and changes in serum lipid concentrations throughout pregnancy. Confounders adjusted for in the multiple analysis were age, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), early pregnancy BMI, leisure time physical activity before pregnancy, energy intake, and gestational age. Results: At baseline, 69% of the women had inadequate concentrations of 25(OH)D. Women with 25(OH)D inadequacy had higher mean LDL-c than those with adequate concentrations (91.3 vs. 97.5 mg/dL; P = 0.064) at baseline. TC, HDL-c, LDL-c TG, TG/HDL-c ratios, and TC/HDL-c ratios, increased throughout pregnancy independently of 25(OH)D concentrations (ANOVA for repeated measures P < 0.001). The adjusted models showed direct associations between the first trimester 25(OH)D status and changes in TC (ß = 9.53; 95%CI = 1.12–17.94), LDL-c (ß = 9.99; 95% CI = 3.62–16.36) concentrations, and TC/HDL-c ratios (ß = 0.16; 95% CI = 0.01–0.31) throughout pregnancy.