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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Ames, Iowa » National Animal Disease Center » Virus and Prion Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #355564

Research Project: Intervention Strategies to Control Influenza A Virus Infection in Swine

Location: Virus and Prion Research

Title: Comparison of adjuvanted-whole inactivated virus and live-attenuated virus vaccines against challenge with contemporary, antigenically distinct H3N2 influenza A viruses

Author
item Abente, Eugenio
item RAJAO, DANIELA - Collaborator
item SANTOS, JEFFERSON - University Of Georgia
item KAPLAN, BRYAN - Orise Fellow
item Nicholson, Tracy
item Brockmeier, Susan
item GAUGER, PHILLIP - Iowa State University
item PEREZ, DANIEL - University Of Georgia
item Vincent, Amy

Submitted to: Journal of Virology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/31/2018
Publication Date: 9/5/2018
Citation: Abente, E.J., Rajao, D.S., Santos, J., Kaplan, B.S., Nicholson, T.L., Brockmeier, S.L., Gauger, P.C., Perez, D.R., Vincent, A.L. 2018. Comparison of adjuvanted-whole inactivated virus and live-attenuated virus vaccines against challenge with contemporary, antigenically distinct H3N2 influenza A viruses. Journal of Virology. 92(22):e01328-18. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01323-18.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01323-18

Interpretive Summary: It is challenging to develop a broadly protective vaccine against influenza virus in swine because the genetic and antigenic diversity is large. Effective use of vaccines can help reduce the burden of disease caused by continued circulation of influenza, and there are multiple vaccine platforms commercially available. In an experimental vaccine challenge study, we compared two vaccine platforms, adjuvanted-whole inactivated virus (WIV) and live-attenuated virus (LAIV). We found that WIV provided partial protection against antigenically distinct viruses and that LAIV provided complete protection. Examining the efficacy of available vaccine platforms will help inform swine producers on how to best implement vaccine use to reduce influenza A virus (IAV) infections in swine.

Technical Abstract: Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) circulating in the United States are phylogenetically and antigenically distinct. A human H3 hemagglutinin (HA) was introduced in the IAV-S gene pool in the late 1990s, sustained continued circulation, and evolved into five monophyletic genetic clades after 2009, H3 IVA-E. Across these phylogenetic clades, distinct antigenic clusters were identified, with three clusters (cyan, red and green) among the most frequently detected antigenic phenotypes. Although it was demonstrated that antigenic diversity of H3N2 IAV-S was associated with changes at a few amino acid positions in the head of the HA, the implications of this diversity on vaccine efficacy was not tested. Using antigenically representative H3N2 viruses, we compared whole inactivated virus (WIV) and live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines for protection against challenge with antigenically distinct H3N2 viruses in pigs. WIV provided partial protection against antigenically distinct viruses but did not prevent virus replication in the upper respiratory tract. In contrast, LAIV provided complete protection from disease and virus was not detected after challenge with antigenically distinct viruses.