|CRUSCIOL, CARLOS - Sao Paulo State University (UNESP)
|MARQUES, RUBIA - Sao Paulo State University (UNESP)
|CARMEIS FILHO, ANTONIO - Sao Paulo State University (UNESP)
|SORATTO, ROGERIO - Sao Paulo State University (UNESP)
|COSTA, CLAUDIO - Sao Paulo State University (UNESP)
|FERRARI NETO, JAYME - Sao Paulo State University (UNESP)
|CASTRO, GUSTAVO - Embrapa
|PARIZ, CRISTIANO - Sao Paulo State University (UNESP)
|CASTILHOS, ANDRE - Sao Paulo State University (UNESP)
Submitted to: Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/5/2019
Publication Date: 9/5/2019
Citation: Crusciol, C.A., Marques, R., Carmeis Filho, A., Soratto, R., Costa, C., Ferrari Neto, J., Castro, G., Pariz, C., Castilhos, A.M., Franzluebbers, A.J. 2019. Lime and gypsum improve soil, crop yields, estimated meat production and revenue in a tropical agricultural system. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. 115:347-372.
Interpretive Summary: Humid environments like the southeastern US and much of tropical Brazil have soil limitations from acidity that limits grain and forage production. Overcoming acidity may not be as simple as applying limestone alone. A scientist at USDA-ARS in Raleigh, North Carolina collaborated with scientists at Sao Paulo State University to study the impacts of lime and gypsum application to both simple and diverse cropping systems to understand how acidity interacts with soil organic matter. Long-term evaluation over several years showed that liming was efficient at reducing acidity and exchangeable aluminum throughout the soil profile. Application of both limestone and gypsum was the most effective in raising productivity of an integrated crop and livestock system. These results will be useful to scientists, agricultural extension agents, and farmers to better manage soils in humid environments.
Technical Abstract: In tropical integrated crop-livestock systems, surface application/reapplication of lime and/or gypsum can reduce the return of the soil to acidic conditions and improve plant nutrition, crop yields and revenue. This study was conducted in the Brazilian Cerrado, which has dry winters, and aimed to evaluate the effects of surface application/reapplication of lime and/or gypsum on soil improvement, plant nutrition and crop yield improvement, as well as the forage dry matter yield, estimated meat production and economic performance. The crop rotation used was as follows: peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and white oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivated alone (first and second spring/summer and autumn/winter, respectively) and corn (Zea mays L.) intercropped with palisadegrass [Urochloa brizantha cv. ‘Marandu’] and pasture (third and fourth spring/summer and autumn/winter, respectively) between November 2004 and August 2008. The experimental design was a randomized block with six replications. The treatments consisted of natural soil conditions (control) and the surface application of lime and/or gypsum in October 2002 and reapplication in November 2004. The effects were considered statistically significant at p=0.05. Surface liming was an efficient practice for reducing the exchangeable acidity and concentration of Al, with benefits extending to a depth of 0.60 m. There was a positive effect of liming (with or without gypsum) on the nutrient acquisition of peanut, white oat and corn crops, producing a higher pod and grain yield than that in the absence of lime + gypsum and with gypsum alone. The surface reapplication of lime + gypsum also increased the forage dry matter yield, estimated meat production of the corn-palisadegrass intercropping and economic performance during four growing seasons and can improve the long-term food production of tropical agriculture worldwide.