Submitted to: The Crop Journal
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/5/2018
Publication Date: 6/1/2018
Citation: Vandemark, G.J., Grusak, M.A., McGee, R.J. 2018. Mineral concentrations of chickpea and lentil cultivars and breeding lines grown in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The Crop Journal. 6:253-262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cj.2017.12.003.
Interpretive Summary: Dietary mineral deficiencies adversely impact the health of over 3 billion people globally, and are responsible for illnesses and deaths during all stages of development from infancy through adulthood. It is estimated that 2 billion people globally suffer from iron deficiency and approximately 1 billion people globally are estimated to be at risk of zinc deficiency. Chickpeas and lentils have served as rich sources of proteins, fiber, and minerals for human diets for thousands of years. Developing chickpeas and lentils with elevated seed mineral concentrations can contribute to reducing the incidence of dietary mineral deficiencies. In the U.S. these crops are principally produced in the Pacific Northwest (Washington and Idaho) and the Northern Plains (Montana and North Dakota). Our objectives were to determine the relative importance of genetics and the environment on seed mineral concentrations of chickpeas and lentils grown in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, identify varieties and plant lines with high seed mineral concentrations, and compare seed mineral concentrations between chickpeas and lentils grown in adjacent plots. The environment tended to exert a much greater effect on the seed concentrations of many important minerals than genetic effects.The results suggest that it will be challenging to improve seed mineral concentrations through plant breeding with the chickpea and lentils examined in this study. Relationships between mineral concentration and yield were similar for chickpeas and lentils across the majority of minerals, including calcium, iron, potassium, manganese, nickel, phosphorus, and zinc. These results suggest there are similarities between the two crops in biological processes involved in mineral uptake by plants. When grow side by side, lentils had higher concentrations of iron and zinc, whereas chickpeas had higher concentrations of calcium and manganese. Despite these differences, both chickpeas and lentils can be considered good sources (provides more than 10% of daily value required for a 2000 calorie per day diet) of several important dietary minerals including copper, selenium, and zinc, and excellent sources (greater than 20% of daily value) of manganese. In addition, lentils can be considered good sources of iron.
Technical Abstract: Diseases and health complications caused by mineral deficiencies afflict billions of people globally. Developing pulse crops with elevated seed mineral concentrations can contribute to reducing the incidence of these deficiencies. The objectives of this study were to examine variance components conditioning seed mineral concentrations of chickpea and lentil grown in Washington and Idaho, and to determine correlations between different mineral concentrations and between mineral concentrations and yield, hundred seed weight, and days to flower. Genotype effects, although significant in chickpea and lentil for all minerals except selenium, tended to be minimal compared to location, year, and their interaction effects. Correlations between seed concentrations of phosphorus and potassium, phosphorus and zinc, and potassium and zinc were among the highest positive correlations between minerals for both chickpeas and lentils. Correlations between mineral concentration and yield, and mineral concentration and days to 50% flowering were similar for chickpeas and lentils across the majority of minerals, including calcium, iron, potassium, manganese, nickel, phosphorus, and zinc. These results may reflect similarities between the two crops in physiological processes for mineral uptake and partitioning. Lentils had higher concentrations of iron and zinc than chickpea when the two crops were grown in adjacent plots, whereas chickpeas had higher concentrations of calcium and manganese. Based on U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidelines both lentils and chickpeas examined in these trials could be considered good sources (10% or more of daily value) of copper, phosphorus, selenium and zinc, and excellent sources (20% or more of daily value) of manganese. In addition, lentils can be considered a good source of iron and chickpeas a good source of magnesium.