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Title: Characterization of a USDA core collection of wild soybean (Glycine soja Siebold & Zucc.) accessions for seed composition and agronomic traits

item LA, THANG - University Of Missouri
item LARGE, EDWARD - University Of Missouri
item Taliercio, Earl
item Song, Qijian
item Gillman, Jason
item XU, DONG - University Of Missouri
item NGUYEN, HENRY - University Of Missouri
item SHANNON, GROVER - University Of Missouri
item SCABOO, ANDREW - University Of Missouri

Submitted to: Frontiers in Plant Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/20/2018
Publication Date: 10/25/2018
Citation: La, T., Large, E., Taliercio, E.W., Song, Q., Gillman, J.D., Xu, D., Nguyen, H., Shannon, G., Scaboo, A. 2018. Characterization of a USDA core collection of wild soybean (Glycine soja Siebold & Zucc.) accessions for seed composition and agronomic traits. Frontiers in Plant Science.

Interpretive Summary: The USDA-ARS maintains the germplasm collection for genus Glycine that includes the species G. max and G soja. Domesticated soybean (G. max) has been substantially enhanced by breeding efforts using the G. max germplasm collection. However the wild soybean (G. soja) collection has had a limited impact on improvement of the soybean crop even though the collection is more genetically diverse than G. max. A collaboration of USDA-ARS scientists and University of MO researchers has investigated seed composition of a genetically diverse subset of the wild soybean germplasm collection. we identified wild accessions with improved seed composition, particularly protein content and amino acid content. These accessions also harbor traits that affect carbohydrate content and oil composition. The combination of plant breeding with genomics will allow these valuable traits to be transferred from wild soybean to domesticated soybean to enhance the value of the crop.

Technical Abstract: The relatively low genomic variation of current U.S. soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merill] cultivars constrains the improvement of grain yield, seed quality, and other agronomic traits within soybean breeding programs. Recently, a substantial effort has been undertaken to introduce novel genetic diversity present in wild soybean (Glycine soja Siebold & Zucc.) into new elite cultivars, in both public and private applied soybean breeding programs. The objectives of this research are to evaluate the phenotypic diversity within a mini-core collection of 80 G. soja plant introductions (PIs) in the United States Department of Agriculture National Genetic Resources Program that were collected in China, Japan, Russia, and South Korea, and to analyze the correlations between agronomic and seed composition traits. Field tests were conducted in Missouri and North Carolina during three years, 2013, 2014, and 2015, in a randomized complete block design (n=3). The phenotypic data collected included plant maturity date, seed weight, and the seed concentration of protein, oil, essential amino acid, fatty acid, and soluble sugar. Analyzing the data from six environments, we found genotype was a significant (p < 0.0001) source of variation for maturity date, seed weight, seed protein and amino acids, seed oil and fatty acids, and seed carbohydrates. Significant correlations were also observed between numerous traits. The information and data collected in this study will be invaluable in guiding soybean breeders and geneticists in selecting promising plant introductions for research and cultivar improvement using wild soybean germplasm.