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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Salinas, California » Crop Improvement and Protection Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #341909

Research Project: Genetic Enhancement of Lettuce, Spinach, Melon, and Related Species

Location: Crop Improvement and Protection Research

Title: Genetic differentiation and diversity upon genotype and phenotype in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.)

Author
item Xiong, Haizheng - University Of Arkansas
item Qin, Jun - University Of Arkansas
item Shi, Ainong - University Of Arkansas
item Mou, Beiquan
item Wu, Dianxing - Zhejiang University
item Sun, Jian - Zhejiang University
item Shu, Xiaoli - Zhejiang University
item Wang, Zhixue - Zhejiang University
item Lu, Weiguo - University Of Arkansas
item Ma, Jianbing - University Of Arkansas
item Weng, Yuejin - University Of Arkansas
item Yang, Wei - University Of Arkansas

Submitted to: Euphytica
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/1/2017
Publication Date: 1/1/2018
Citation: Xiong, H., Qin, J., Shi, A., Mou, B., Wu, D., Sun, J., Shu, X., Wang, Z., Lu, W., Ma, J., Weng, Y., Yang, W. 2018. Genetic differentiation and diversity upon genotype and phenotype in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.). Euphytica. 214:4. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-017-2088-9.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-017-2088-9

Interpretive Summary: The evolution of species is complex and subtle, which always associates with the genetic variation and environment adaption during active/ passive spread or migration. In crops, this process is usually driven and influenced by human activities such as domestication, cultivation and immigration. One method to discover this process is to analyze the genetic diversity of those crops in different regions. This research first assessed the similarity and differentiation in genetic diversity of the 768 world-wild cowpea varieties which were collected by USDA and US breeding programs. A total of 1,048 molecular markers and 17 agronomic traits were used to analyze the genetic diversity. A consistent result of diversity analysis indicated that the East Africa and South Asia sub-continents were the original and secondary regions of cowpea domestication. Our genetic study revealed relationship among varieties from different regions. Molecular analysis also showed medium correlation level between genetic makeup and agronomic traits. The information from this investigation may help us to understand evolution and migration of cowpea more comprehensively and also will inform breeders how to use cowpea varieties in breeding programs.

Technical Abstract: The evolution of species is complex and subtle, which always associates with the genetic variation and environment adaption during active/ passive spread or migration. In crops, this process is usually driven and influenced by human activities such as domestication, cultivation and immigration. One method to discover this process is to analyze the genetic diversity of those crops in different regions. This research first assessed the similarity and differentiation between genetic diversity of genotype and phenotype of the 768 world-wild cowpea germplasm which were collected by USDA and US breeding programs. Totally 1048 GBS derived SNPs and 17 agronomic traits were used to analyze the genetic diversity, distance, cluster and phylogeny. The group differentiation was analyzed based on both the genotype distances from 1048 SNP markers and the phenotypic (Mahalanobis) distance D2 from 11 traits. A consistent result of diversity in genotype (polymorphism information content, PIC) and phenotype (Shannon and Simpson index) indicated that the East Africa and South Asia sub-continent were the original and secondary regions of cowpea domestication. Both dendrograms built by genetic distance present relationship among different regions, and the Mantel coefficient showed medium correlation level (r = 0.58) between genotype and phenotype. The information of both genotypic and phenotypic differentiations may help us to understand evolution and migration of cowpea more comprehensively and also will inform breeders how to use cowpea germplasm in breeding programs.