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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Tifton, Georgia » Crop Genetics and Breeding Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #337816

Research Project: Development of Peanut Germplasm with Improved Yield, Oil Quality, and Tolerance to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

Location: Crop Genetics and Breeding Research

Title: Conditions that impact artificial hybridization of Arachis hypogaea L.

Author
item CHU, Y - University Of Georgia
item WU, C - University Of Georgia
item Holbrook, Carl - Corley
item OZIAS-AKINS, P - University Of Georgia

Submitted to: Peanut Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/20/2016
Publication Date: 7/20/2016
Citation: Chu, Y., Wu, C.L., Holbrook Jr, C.C., Ozias-Akins, P. 2016. Conditions that impact artificial hybridization of Arachis hypogaea L. Peanut Science. 43:106-115.

Interpretive Summary: Artificial hybridization is the critical first step in breeding improved peanut varieties. Peanut is a self-pollinated crop with a typical yield of less than three seeds per flower; therefore, significant effort is required to produce sufficient hybrid seeds for subsequent trait selection. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of multiple factors on the success rate of artificial hybridization in peanut. The impacts of operator, pollination time, flower integrity, genotype and environment on hybridization were evaluated. Data indicated that operator, pollination time and environment significantly affected the success rate of peanut hybridization. Improving hybridization success rate by increasing humidity, decreasing temperature, personnel training and greenhouse management is recommended.

Technical Abstract: Modern farming is dependent on continual development of improved cultivars and efficient cultural management practices. In addition, dissecting genetic components of heritable traits also relies on the development of large mapping populations. Artificial hybridization is the critical initial step in these processes. Peanut is a self-pollinating crop with a typical yield of less than three seed per flower; therefore, significant effort is required to produce sufficient hybrid seeds for subsequent trait selection and/or establishment of mapping populations. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of multiple factors on the success rate of artificial hybridization assessed by transmission of molecular markers unique to the paternal parent. Multiple peanut genotypes were crossed with a breeding line homozygous for both high oleic acid and nematode resistance. The impact of operator, pollination time, flower integrity, genotype and environment on hybridization were evaluated. Data indicated that operator, pollination time and enviroment significantly affected the success rate of peanut hybridization. Pods from runner type parental plants that contain hybrid seeds were more likely to contain single seeds that those derived from self-pollination. Hybrid seed loss due to seed rot and peg damage reduced yield. Improving hybridization success rate by increasing humidity, decreasing temperature, personnel training and greenhouse management is recommended.