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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Tifton, Georgia » Crop Genetics and Breeding Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #337782

Research Project: Genetic Improvement of Maize and Sorghum for Resistance to Biotic Stress

Location: Crop Genetics and Breeding Research

Title: Feeding Injury

Author
item GOGGIN, FIONA - University Of Arkansas
item QUISENBERRY, SHARRON - Iowa State University
item Ni, Xinzhi

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/4/2016
Publication Date: 9/1/2017
Citation: Goggin, F.L., Quisenberry, S.S., Ni, X. 2017. Feeding Injury. In: H.F. van Emden and R. Harrington (eds.). Aphids as Crop Pests, 2nd edition. CAB International, Oxfordshire, UK, pp. 303-322.

Interpretive Summary: Aphid feeding can induce a series of biochemical and physiological changes in their host plants, which can be considered as the etiological basis for a wide diversity of symptoms including ceasing growth (e.g., leaf chlorosis, necrosis, and stunting) and deformation (e.g., galling, leaf rolling and other psuedogalls), and can lead to extensive damage to growth, reproduction, and crop yields. The extent of damage depends upon a complex interplay of effectors from the insect, resistance- and susceptibility-factors from the host, and environmental conditions such as light and CO2 levels. Further research to understand and characterize symptom development will dramatically advance crop protection in several ways. First, the development of new imaging approaches to identify and measure symptoms of infestation is contributing to novel approaches to detect and diagnose insect outbreaks. Second, better means of identifying and quantifying insect-responsive symptoms will empower better breeding programs to select for tolerance and resistance. Third, an understanding of the basis for symptom development and the molecular underpinnings of the susceptible response to insect infestation can inform the rational design of new crop protection strategies. Lastly, just as previous basic research on the mechanisms of pathogenicity of crown gall in plants and bacterial toxins in insects has ultimately enabled plant biotechnology and revolutionized crop protection, current research on plant-aphid interactions may also have unexpected and far-reaching applications.

Technical Abstract: As a result of their probing behaviour, oral secretions, and withdrawal of plant sap, Aphidoidea can induce many changes in their host plants, including cytological damage, morphological aberrations, altered resource allocation and perturbations of the photosynthetic machinery. These changes can cause a wide diversity of symptoms including desistance (e.g., chlorosis, necrosis, stunting) and deformation (e.g., galling, leaf rolling and other psuedogalls), and can also cause extensive damage to growth, reproduction, and crop yields. The extent of damage depends upon a complex interplay of effectors from the insect, resistance- and susceptibility-factors from the host, and environmental conditions such as light and CO2 levels. Research to understand this interplay and to characterize symptom development will dramatically advance crop protection in several ways. First, the development of new imaging approaches to identify and measure symptoms of infestation is contributing to novel approaches to detect and diagnose insect outbreaks. Second, better means of identifying and quantifying insect-responsive symptoms will empower better breeding programmes to select for tolerance and resistance. Third, an understanding of the basis for symptom development and the molecular underpinnings of the susceptible response to insect infestation can inform the rational design of new crop protection strategies. By studying the sequential process that renders plants susceptible and results in damage, we can identify steps at which to intercept this process. Lastly, just as previous basic research on the mechanisms of pathogenicity of Agrobacterium tumefaciens (crown gall) in plants and Bacillus thurigiensis in insects has ultimately enabled plant biotechnology and revolutionized crop protection, current research on plant-aphid interactions may also have unexpected and far-reaching applications.