Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/1/2016
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: The term bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) has come to refer to a collection of diverse clinical presentations that include respiratory, enteric and reproductive diseases accompanied by immunosuppression. BVD may be caused by one of three different species of bovine pestivirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV1), BVDV2 and HoBi-like virus. Regardless of species, isolates may exist as one of two biotypes, cytopathic and noncytopathic. The cytopathic biotype appears to arise from the noncytopathic biotype via recombination. Recombination has also been observed in noncytopathic viruses and is associated with increased virulence. Isolates of the noncytopathic biotype from all three species can establish persistent infections, which are the result of infection of the fetus during the first one third of gestation. Bovine pestiviruses are associated with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). While single uncomplicated acute infections with bovine pestiviruses rarely result in severe respiratory disease, these viruses may contribute by synergy or potentiation to the increased severity of infections with other pathogens. Surveillance studies of wildlife species in the U.S. has yielded evidence that BVDV1 and BVDV2 are currently circulating in mule deer, mountain goat, big horn sheep and pronghorn antelope populations. The recognition of the prevalence of HoBi-like viruses continues to expand with reports from India and Bangladesh that HoBi-like viruses are more prevalent in those countries that BVDV1 or BVDV2. A serological survey, conducted using 2000 serum samples originally collected in the course of the U.S. brucellosis surveillance program, has been completed. Cross reactivity was seen between BVDV1, BVDV2 and HoBi-like viruses but differential serology indicates that HoBi-like viruses are not prevalent in the U.S. However, these results also suggest that the majority of cattle tested would not possess an adequate level of cross-reactive antibodies to provide against infection with HoBi-like viruses.