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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Stoneville, Mississippi » Southern Insect Management Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #334359

Research Project: Integrated Insect Pest and Resistance Management on Corn, Cotton, Sorghum, Soybean, and Sweet Potato

Location: Southern Insect Management Research

Title: Synergistic toxicity and physiological impact of imidacloprid alone and binary mixtures with seven representative pesticides on honey bee (Apis mellifera)

Author
item Zhu, Yu Cheng
item Yao, Jianxiu
item Adamczyk, John
item Luttrell, Randall

Submitted to: PLoS One
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/24/2017
Publication Date: 5/3/2017
Citation: Zhu, Y., Yao, J., Adamczyk Jr, J.J., Luttrell, R.G. 2017. Synergistic toxicity and physiological impact of imidacloprid alone and binary mixtures with seven representative pesticides on honey bee (Apis mellifera). PLoS One. 12(5):e0176837. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0176837.

Interpretive Summary: Imidacloprid is the most widely used insecticide in the world. In this study, we used spraying methods to simulate field exposures of bees to formulated imidacloprid (Advise® 2FL) alone and binary mixtures with seven pesticides from different classes. Synergistic toxicity was detected from mixtures of Advise+Domark, Advise+Transform, and Advise+Vydate, and mortality was significantly increased by 20%, 15%, and 26% respectively. The mixtures of Advise+Bracket and Advise+Karate showed additive interaction, while Advise+Belay and Advise+Roundup had no additive/synergistic interaction. Spraying bees with the mixture of all eight pesticides increased mortality to 100%, significantly higher than all other treatments. Except Bracket which significantly suppressed esterase (detoxification enzyme) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE; insecticide targeting enzyme) activities, other treatments of Advise-only and mixtures with other pesticides did not suppress enzyme activities significantly, including invertase (honey making enzyme), glutathione S-transferase (GST; detoxification enzyme), and esterase and AChE. Immunity-related phenoloxidase (PO) activities in survivors tended to be more variable among treatments, but mostly still statistically similar to the control. By using specific enzyme inhibitors, we demonstrated that honey bees mainly rely on cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s; detoxification enzyme) for detoxifying Advise, while esterases and GSTs play substantially less roles in the detoxification. This study provided valuable information for guiding pesticide selection in premixing and tank mixing in order to alleviate toxicity risk to honey bees. Our findings indicated mixtures of Advise with detoxification-enzyme-inducing pesticides may help bees to detoxify Advise, while toxicity synergists may pose further risk to bees, such as the Bracket which not only suppressed esterase and AChE activities, but also increased toxicity to bees.

Technical Abstract: Imidacloprid is the most widely used insecticide in the world. In this study, we used spraying methods to simulate field exposures of bees to formulated imidacloprid (Advise® 2FL) alone and binary mixtures with seven pesticides from different classes. Synergistic toxicity was detected from mixtures of Advise+Domark, Advise+Transform, and Advise+Vydate, and mortality was significantly increased by 20%, 15%, and 26% respectively. The mixtures of Advise+Bracket and Advise+Karate showed additive interaction, while Advise+Belay and Advise+Roundup had no additive/synergistic interaction. Spraying bees with the mixture of all eight pesticides increased mortality to 100%, significantly higher than all other treatments. Except Bracket which significantly suppressed esterase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, other treatments of Advise-only and mixtures with other pesticides did not suppress enzyme activities significantly, including invertase, glutathione S-transferase (GST), and esterase and AChE. Immunity-related phenoloxidase (PO) activities in survivors tended to be more variable among treatments, but mostly still statistically similar to the control. By using specific enzyme inhibitors, we demonstrated that honey bees mainly rely on cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) for detoxifying Advise, while esterases and GSTs play substantially less roles in the detoxification. This study provided valuable information for guiding pesticide selection in premixing and tank mixing in order to alleviate toxicity risk to honey bees. Our findings indicated mixtures of Advise with detoxification-enzyme-inducing pesticides may help bees to detoxify Advise, while toxicity synergists may pose further risk to bees, such as the Bracket which not only suppressed esterase and AChE activities, but also increased toxicity to bees.