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ARS Home » Plains Area » Grand Forks, North Dakota » Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center » Healthy Body Weight Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #333329

Research Project: Dietary Guidelines Adherence and Healthy Body Weight Maintenance

Location: Healthy Body Weight Research

Title: Postprandial energy metabolism and substrate oxidation in response to the inclusion of a sugar- or non-nutritive sweetened beverage with meals differing in protein content

Author
item Casperson, Shanon
item Hall, Clinton
item Roemmich, James

Submitted to: Biomed Central (BMC) Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/12/2017
Publication Date: 7/21/2017
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/5832843
Citation: Casperson, S.L., Hall, C.B., Roemmich, J.N. 2017. Postprandial energy metabolism and substrate oxidation in response to the inclusion of a sugar- or non-nutritive sweetened beverage with meals differing in protein content. Biomed Central (BMC) Nutrition. 3:49.

Interpretive Summary: Changing the amount of protein, fat, or carbohydrate in a meal may change how the body uses those nutrients for fuel. For this study participants consumed a sugary drink or an artificially sweetened (“diet”) drink with a meal containing either 15% or 30% protein. For four hours after the meal we measured fullness, hunger, the desire to eat foods with different types of taste, energy expended, and fat used for energy. We found that compared to drinking a “diet” drink, drinking a sugary drink with a meal increased the appetite for savory, salty and fatty foods, especially when paired with a higher protein meal. Most notably, the addition of a sugary drink to a meal markedly altered energy metabolism and reduced the amount of fat being used as fuel by 8%, all of which would promote gradual weight gain. This work adds to the mounting evidence that drinking a sugary drink with a meal can increase an individual’s susceptibility to increasing their fat stores.

Technical Abstract: Protein-rich diets may promote achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight by increasing energy metabolism and substrate oxidation, especially fat oxidation. Sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) are considered a major contributor to the obesogenic food environment and may decrease fat oxidation. Therefore, we sought to determine the impact of SSBs on the advantageous metabolic effects of a high-protein meal. Appetite, energy metabolism and substrate oxidation were measured in 27 healthy weight adults (age = 23 ± 5 y; BMI = 23 ± 2 kg/m2) on two occasions in a room calorimeter after consumption of a SSB or a non-nutritive-sweetened beverage (NNSB) with a standard (15%E) or higher (30%E) protein meal. Meal carbohydrate content was adjusted to maintain equivalent calories for both study visits. All meals were composed of the same foods and provided 17g of fat and 500 non-beverage kcals. Study visits were separated by at least one week and menstruating females were studied during the luteal phase (Days 15 - 20). Consumption of SSB with a meal increased appetite for savory, salty and fatty foods. SSB consumption increased 24h energy expenditure though diet induced thermogenesis was lower when a SSB was consumed with the meal. Fat oxidation was 8% lower when a SSB was included with a meal and this effect was independent of dietary protein. Appetite sensations, food preferences, energy expenditure and substrate oxidation are significantly altered in response to changes in meal macronutrient composition produced by modifications in protein content of a meal and consumption of a SSB. Most notably, consumption of a SSB during a meal markedly reduces energy efficiency and fat oxidation independent of macronutrient composition.