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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Fayetteville, Arkansas » Poultry Production and Product Safety Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #332673

Research Project: Manure Management Strategies to Improve Air and Water Quality

Location: Poultry Production and Product Safety Research

Title: Effects of chemical amendments to swine manure on runoff quality

Author
item Bullock, E - University Of Kentucky
item Edwards, D - University Of Kentucky
item Moore, Philip
item Gates, R - Michigan State University

Submitted to: Transactions of the ASABE
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/2/2016
Publication Date: 11/1/2016
Citation: Bullock, E.L., Edwards, D.R., Moore Jr, P.A., Gates, R.S. 2016. Effects of chemical amendments to swine manure on runoff quality. Transactions of the ASABE. 59(6):1651-1660.

Interpretive Summary: Swine manure applications to agricultural land can be an environmental concern when runoff losses of nutrients, pathogens or hormones occur. Chemical amendments, such as aluminum sulfate (alum), have often been used to mitigate these losses from poultry litter, but materials such as swine manure have received less attention. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of alum (Al2(SO4)3), aluminum chloride (AlCl3), and ferric chloride (FeCl3) addition on runoff of selected constituents from land-applied swine manure. Swine manure was collected from feeder pigs fed a standard diet. The amended manure was incubated for six days prior to land application to plots cropped in tall fescue. Rainfall was applied to the plots using rainfall simulators on the day of manure application and at day 8 and 15. Runoff samples was analyzed for dissolved reactive phosphorus (DP), TP, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total suspended solids (TSS), fecal coliform (FC) and 17ß-estradiol. All chemical amendments were effective in reducing runoff concentrations of all constituents except NO3-N were highest for the first simulated rainfall event, approaching background levels thereafter. Relative to untreated manure, all chemical amendments were effective in reducing first-event DP, TP and TKN concentrations; both AlCl3 and FeCl3 reduced first-event NH3-N concentrations, FeCl3 addition led to FC concentrations indistinguishable from the control (no manure) plots. These results indicate that amendments have potential for promoting both environmental and agronomic benefits, implying that studies involving practicality and long-term considerations should be undertaken.

Technical Abstract: Land-applied swine manure can be an environmental concern when runoff losses of manure constituents occur. The use of chemical amendments to mitigate these losses has been investigated for poultry litter, but materials such as swine manure have received less attention in this context, particularly at the plot scale or larger. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the impacts of aluminum sulfate (alum; Al2(SO4)3), aluminum chloride (AlCl3), and ferric chloride (FeCl3) addition on runoff of selected constituents of land-applied swine manure. Manure was collected from feeder pigs fed a standard diet. Alum and FeCl3 were added at a stoichiometric ratio of 1.1:1 [Al:Total P (TP)] and AlCl3 at a ratio of 1.3:1 [Al:TP]. The amended manure was incubated for six days prior to land application to fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreber) plots. Simulated rainfall (100 mm/h for 0.5 h of runoff) was applied to the plots on the day of application and followed by two additional simulated rainfall events at 7-d intervals. Runoff samples were collected and analyzed for dissolved reactive phosphorus (DP), TP, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total suspended solids (TSS), fecal coliform (FC) and 17ß-estradiol. Runoff concentrations of all constituents except NO3-N were highest for the first simulated rainfall event, approaching background levels thereafter. Relative to untreated manure, all chemical amendments were effective in reducing first-event DP, TP and TKN concentrations; both AlCl3 and FeCl3 reduced first-event NH3-N concentrations, FeCl3 addition led to FC concentrations indistinguishable from the control (no manure) plots. The results indicate that these amendments have potential for promoting both environmental and agronomic benefits, implying that studies involving practicality and long-term considerations should be undertaken.