|Fulton, Robert - Oklahoma State University|
|Confer, Anthony - Oklahoma State University|
|Sorensen, Nicholas - Oklahoma State University|
|Burge, Lurinda - Northwestern Oklahoma State University|
Submitted to: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/26/2017
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2) are two related classes of virus that cause a variety of diseases in cattle. These diseases range from very mild to severe with diverse associated signs including diarrhea, pneumonia and fever dependent on the virulence of the viral strain. To date, one of the most severe signs, multiple hemorrhages, had only been observed with BVDV2 infections. This manuscripts reports a case in which hemorrhages were observed in a BVDV1 infection. Study of this BVDV1 strain could yield information on the factors that make viruses virulent.
Technical Abstract: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) subtype 1b was isolated from tissues of a term bovine fetus with hemorrhages in multiple tissues. At autopsy, multiple petechial hemorrhages were observed at gross examination throughout the body and placenta. Lung, kidney, thymus, and liver fresh tissues were examined by direct fluorescent antibody testing and were negative for bovine herpesvirus-1 antigen and were positive for BVDV antigen. An organ pool of fresh tissues were positive for noncytopathic (NCP) BVDV1 by virus isolation. BVDV1b was identified by sequencing of the 5’ UTR region of the genome. Fixed tissues of brain, placenta, thymus, lymph node, lung, kidney, skeletal muscle, liver, and bone marrow were positive for BVDV antigen by immunohistochemistry (IHC). While BVDV hemorrhage/thrombocytopenia has historically been associated with NCP strains of BVDV2, this case adds to more recent reports of BVDV1 infections and hemorrhage in cattle. Potentially this BVDV1b might be investigated for its potential to cause hemorrhage in postnatal cattle.