Skip to main content
ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Salinas, California » Crop Improvement and Protection Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #329650

Research Project: Biology, Epidemiology and Management of Vector-Borne Viruses of Sugarbeet and Vegetable Crops

Location: Crop Improvement and Protection Research

Title: Genome sequence, host range, and whitefly transmission of the torradovirus, Tomato necrotic dwarf virus

Author
item Wintermantel, William - Bill
item Hladky, Laura
item Cortez, Arturo - Art

Submitted to: Acta Horticulturae
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/1/2016
Publication Date: 9/12/2018
Citation: Wintermantel, W.M., Hladky, L.L., Cortez, A.A. 2018. Genome sequence, host range, and whitefly transmission of the torradovirus, Tomato necrotic dwarf virus. Acta Horticulturae. 1207:295-302. http://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2018.1207.41.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2018.1207.41

Interpretive Summary: Tomato necrotic dwarf virus (ToNDV) is a whitefly-transmitted virus that caused significant losses for tomato production in southern California during the 1980s, but was never fully characterized. The virus produces isometric virus particles approximately 30 nm in diameter. Previous studies demonstrated transmission by Bemisia tabaci as well as mechanically and by grafting, and current studies have demonstrated transmission by banded wing whitefly (Trialeurodes abutilonea), and greenhouse whitefly (T. vaporariorum). Whitefly transmission by banded wing whitefly was slightly better than by greenhouse whitefly. Tomato is the primary crop affected by ToNDV, but the virus can efficiently infect other members of the Solanaceae. Symptoms and transmission characteristics of ToNDV resemble those of viruses in the emerging genus, Torradovirus, family Secoviridae. An isolate of ToNDV originally collected from Imperial County, CA and maintained in tomato was sequenced to determine its relationship to other viruses. The ToNDV genome is composed of two RNA molecules of 7.2 and 4.9 kb. RNA1 contains a large 2151 amino acid protein that has homology to that of other viruses within the genus, Torradovirus. RNA2 encodes two proteins of 190 and 1191 amino acids, respectively, with the latter expressed as a polyprotein. The closest relative of ToNDV is Tomato marchitez virus at 80% and 91% identity for the RNA1 and RNA2 polyproteins, respectively. Sequence identity for other members of the genus range from 62-81% for the RNA1, and 69-83% for the RNA2 polyproteins. An infectious clone of ToNDV has been developed for further biological characterization of ToNDV.

Technical Abstract: Tomato necrotic dwarf virus (ToNDV) is a whitefly-transmitted virus that caused significant losses to tomato production in southern California during the 1980s, but was never fully characterized. The virus produces icosahedral virions approximately 30 nm in diameter. Previous studies demonstrated transmission by Bemisia tabaci as well as mechanically and by grafting, and current studies have demonstrated transmission by Trialeurodes abutilonea, and T. vaporariorum. Transmission by T. abutilonea was slightly better than by T. vaporariorum. Tomato is the primary crop affected by ToNDV, but the virus can efficiently infect other members of the Solanaceae. Symptoms and transmission characteristics of ToNDV resemble those of viruses in the emerging genus, Torradovirus, family Secoviridae. An isolate of ToNDV originally collected from Imperial County, CA and maintained in tomato was sequenced to determine its relationship to other viruses. The ToNDV genome is composed of two RNA molecules of 7.2 and 4.9 kb. RNA1 contains a large ORF encoding a 2151 amino acid protein that has homology to that of other viruses within the genus, Torradovirus. RNA2 encodes two ORFs of 190 and 1191 amino acids, respectively, with the latter expressed as a polyprotein. The closest relative of ToNDV is Tomato marchitez virus at 80% and 91% identity for the RNA1 and RNA2 polyproteins, respectively. Sequence identity for other members of the genus range from 62-81% for the RNA1, and 69-83% for the RNA2 polyproteins. An infectious clone of ToNDV has been developed for further biological characterization of ToNDV.