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ARS Home » Plains Area » Clay Center, Nebraska » U.S. Meat Animal Research Center » Genetics, Breeding, and Animal Health Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #328837

Research Project: Genetic and Biological Determinants Of Respiratory Diseases Of Ruminants

Location: Genetics, Breeding, and Animal Health Research

Title: Evaluation of the effect of serum antibody abundance against bovine coronavirus on bovine coronavirus shedding and risk of respiratory tract disease in beef calves from birth through the first five weeks in a feedlot

Author
item Workman, Aspen
item Kuehn, Larry
item Mcdaneld, Tara
item Clawson, Michael - Mike
item Chitko Mckown, Carol
item Loy, John - University Of Nebraska

Submitted to: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/21/2016
Publication Date: 9/1/2017
Citation: Workman, A.M., Kuehn, L.A., McDaneld, T.G., Clawson, M.L., Chitko-McKown, C.G., Loy, J.D. 2017. Evaluation of the effect of serum antibody abundance against bovine coronavirus on bovine coronavirus shedding and risk of respiratory tract disease in beef calves from birth through the first five weeks in a feedlot. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 78(9):1065-1076. https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.78.9.1065.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.78.9.1065

Interpretive Summary: Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is a serious health and economic problem for dairy and beef cattle industries worldwide. BRDC is caused by complex interactions among the host, viruses, bacteria, stress and the environment. Researchers are trying to determine the nature of these interactions in order to develop management practices that reduce the impact of BRDC. The purpose of this research was to fill an important knowledge gap regarding the relationship between bovine coronavirus (BCV) antibody titers, virus shedding, and the risk for developing BRDC at various production stages. This study found that BCV antibody levels at feed yard entry negatively correlate with the subsequent incidence of BRDC. These results suggest that a BCV vaccine administered before feed yard entry could provide protective immunity against BCV and reduce the prevalence and impact of BRDC in the feed yard.

Technical Abstract: OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of serum antibody abundance against bovine corona¬virus (BCV) on BCV shedding and risk of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef calves from birth through the first 5 weeks in a feedlot. ANIMALS 890 natural-service crossbred beef calves from 4 research herds. PROCEDURES Serial blood samples for measurement of serum anti-BCV antibody abun¬dance by an ELISA and nasal swab specimens for detection of BCV and other viral and bacterial BRD pathogens by real-time PCR methods were collected from all calves or subsets of calves at predetermined times from birth through the first 5 weeks after feedlot entry. Test results were com¬pared among herds, over time, and between calves that did and did not develop BRD. The associations of various herd and calf factors with test results were also evaluated. RESULTS At the calf level, serum anti-BCV antibody abundance was not associated with BCV shedding, but BCV shedding was positively associated with BRD incidence before and after weaning. The mean serum anti-BCV antibody abundance at weaning for a group of calves was inversely related with the subsequent incidence of BRD in that group; however, the serum anti-BCV antibody abundance at weaning for individual calves was not predictive of which calves would develop BRD after feedlot entry. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that serum anti-BCV antibody abundance as determined with ELISA were not associated with BCV shedding or risk of BRD in indi¬vidual beef calves from birth through the first 5 weeks after feedlot entry.