|DEMMER, ELIEKE - University Of California
|Van Loan, Marta
|RIVERA, NANCY - University Of California
|GARROD, MARJORIE - University Of California
|ROGERS, TARA - University Of California
|GERMAN, BRUCE - University Of California
|ZIVKOVIC, AM - University Of California
Submitted to: Journal of Nutritional Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/1/2015
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: For decades Americans have been advised to reduce their dietary fat intake, especially saturated fat, to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). More recently recommendations have evolved to included reductions in specific fats such as trans-fats, found in margarine and other food products, which have been shown to clearly influence CVD. But examination of specific saturated fats from foods has not been undertaken. We conducted a study with overweight and obese adults to compare the effect of a high fat meal with animal source fat, i.e cheddar cheese, or a plant-based saturated fat, palm oil, on inflammatory markers associated with CVD. Blood samples were collected over a 6-hr. period following the consumption of the high fat meal. As expected triglycerides rose significantly with the high fat meal, but C-reactive protein, a marker of short term response, was significantly lower when the cheese was eaten compared to the palm oil. Other inflammation markers also rose after the high fat meal, however, the changes were similar with both meals. In other words, the impact of a high saturated fat meal on inflammatory markers did not differ whether the source was animal vs. plant.
Technical Abstract: Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimize CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomized controlled cross-over trial was conducted in twenty overweight or obese adults with metabolic abnormalities. Individuals consumed two isoenergetic high fat mixed meals separated by a 1- to 2-week washout period. Serum was collected at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 6 h postprandially and analyzed for inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18, TNFa, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)), acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-A (SAA), cellular adhesion molecules and blood lipids, glucose and insulin. Following both high-fat test meals, postprandial TAG concentrations rose steadily (P < 0·05) without a decrease by 6 h. The incremental AUC (iAUC) for CRP was significantly lower (P < 0·05) in response to the cheese compared with the vegan-alternative test meal. A treatment effect was not observed for any other inflammatory markers; however, for both test meals, multiple markers significantly changed from baseline over the 6 h postprandial period (IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNFa, MCP-1, SAA). Saturated fat in the form of a cheese matrix reduced the iAUC for CRP compared with a vegan-alternative test meal during the postprandial 6 h period. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under NCT01803633.