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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Salinas, California » Crop Improvement and Protection Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #325041

Research Project: Biology, Epidemiology and Management of Vector-Borne Viruses of Sugarbeet and Vegetable Crops

Location: Crop Improvement and Protection Research

Title: Beet pseudo-yellows virus

Author
item Wintermantel, William - Bill

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/14/2017
Publication Date: 6/15/2017
Citation: Wintermantel, W.M. 2017. Beet pseudo-yellows virus. In: Keinath, A.P., Wintermantel, W.M., Zitter, T.A., editors. Compendium of Cucurbit Diseases and Pests. 2nd edition. St. Paul, MN: APS Press. p. 126-127.

Interpretive Summary: Beet pseudo-yellows virus (BPYV), a whitefly-transmitted virus (genus Crinivirus, family Closteroviridae). BPYV is particularly important in greenhouse production where its vector, the greenhouse whitefly, is often a chronic problem, as well as in cooler Mediterranean climates. Initial symptoms consist of mottle, followed by gradually developing, then extensive chlorosis between major veins on most cucurbit host plants. Some cucurbit hosts may exhibit a generalized leaf chlorosis, and leaves may become thickened and somewhat brittle. BPYV particles are long, flexuous, filamentous rods encapsidating two genomic single-stranded RNAs. RT-PCR or nucleic acid hybridization remain the most reliable methods for detection of BPYV and differentiation from related viruses. Serological methods are not highly specific. BPYV is transmitted exclusively by the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum with feeding periods as short as a few hours. Efficient transmission requires feeding periods of 24 to 48 hours. BPYV has a substantial host range, affecting most cucurbit crops, but also sugarbeet, vegetables and small fruit crops, as well as many common weeds. BPYV is primarily managed through insecticide based vector control. No sources of resistance are available in commercial cucurbit crops. Field plantings should be timed to avoid excessive whitefly populations if possible. Coordinated efforts should be developed to avoid removal of BPYV-infected, whitefly-infested crops prior to emergence of new susceptible hosts.

Technical Abstract: Beet pseudo-yellows virus (BPYV), a whitefly-transmitted virus (genus Crinivirus, family Closteroviridae). BPYV is particularly important in greenhouse production where its vector, the greenhouse whitefly, is often a chronic problem, as well as in cooler Mediterranean climates. Initial symptoms consist of mottle, followed by gradually developing, then extensive chlorosis between major veins on most cucurbit host plants. Some cucurbit hosts may exhibit a generalized leaf chlorosis, and leaves may become thickened and somewhat brittle. BPYV particles are long, flexuous, filamentous rods encapsidating two genomic single-stranded RNAs. RT-PCR or nucleic acid hybridization remain the most reliable methods for detection of BPYV and differentiation from related viruses. Serological methods are not highly specific. BPYV is transmitted exclusively by the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum with feeding periods as short as a few hours. Efficient transmission requires feeding periods of 24 to 48 hours. BPYV has a substantial host range, affecting most cucurbit crops, but also sugarbeet, vegetables and small fruit crops, as well as many common weeds. BPYV is primarily managed through insecticide based vector control. No sources of resistance are available in commercial cucurbit crops. Field plantings should be timed to avoid excessive whitefly populations if possible. Coordinated efforts should be developed to avoid removal of BPYV-infected, whitefly-infested crops prior to emergence of new susceptible hosts.