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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Salinas, California » Crop Improvement and Protection Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #325039

Research Project: Biology, Epidemiology and Management of Vector-Borne Viruses of Sugarbeet and Vegetable Crops

Location: Crop Improvement and Protection Research

Title: Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus

Author
item OKUDA, MITSURU - National Agriculture And Food Research Organization (NARO), Agricultrual Research Center
item Wintermantel, William - Bill

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/14/2017
Publication Date: 6/15/2017
Citation: Okuda, M., Wintermantel, W.M. 2017. Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus. In: Keinath, A.P., Wintermantel, W.M., Zitter, T.A., editors. Compendium of Cucurbit Diseases and Pests. 2nd edition. St. Paul, MN: APS Press. p. 122-123.

Interpretive Summary: Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) emerged as a threat to cucurbit production in Japan during the early 2000s and has since spread to China and Taiwan, as well as to the Middle East, and parts of Africa. CCYV (genus Crinivirus, family Closteroviridae) causes chlorotic mottle symptoms, interveinal chlorosis, and severe leaf yellowing on several cucurbit crop plants, including melon, watermelon, and cucumber. Symptoms, like those of many criniviruses, typically begin as chlorotic spots that coalesce into larger areas of interveinal chlorosis with veins remaining green in most cucurbitaceous hosts. The genome of CCYV is single-stranded RNA and is comprised of two distinct RNA molecules with an organization typical of members of the genus Crinivirus. Efficient detection of CCYV can be achieved with RT-PCR, LAMP or with antibodies developed against the recombinant coat protein of CCYV. CCYV is transmitted in a semipersistent manner by whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, biotypes B and Q (also known as MEAM1 and MED, respectively), and infects a broad range of cucurbit hosts. Whiteflies can acquire CCYV during feeding periods of 6 hours with longer transmission resulting in increased efficiency. The virus is retaine for 15 days, longer than any other members of the genus characterized to date. Control is through management of whitefly vectors and timely removal of reservoir hosts. Insecticide treatment to seedlings 1 to 3 days prior to transplanting is effective to reduce virus infection. Some resistance against CCYV has been identified in melon and breeding efforts are in progress to incorporate resistance into melon.

Technical Abstract: Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) emerged as a threat to cucurbit production in Japan during the early 2000s and has since spread to China and Taiwan, as well as to the Middle East, and parts of Africa. CCYV (genus Crinivirus, family Closteroviridae) causes chlorotic mottle symptoms, interveinal chlorosis, and severe leaf yellowing on several cucurbit crop plants, including melon, watermelon, and cucumber. Symptoms, like those of many criniviruses, typically begin as chlorotic spots that coalesce into larger areas of interveinal chlorosis with veins remaining green in most cucurbitaceous hosts. The genome of CCYV is single-stranded RNA and is comprised of two distinct RNA molecules with an organization typical of members of the genus Crinivirus. Efficient detection of CCYV can be achieved with RT-PCR, LAMP or with antibodies developed against the recombinant coat protein of CCYV. CCYV is transmitted in a semipersistent manner by whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, biotypes B and Q (also known as MEAM1 and MED, respectively), and infects a broad range of cucurbit hosts. Whiteflies can acquire CCYV during feeding periods of 6 hours with longer transmission resulting in increased efficiency. The virus is retaine for 15 days, longer than any other members of the genus characterized to date. Control is through management of whitefly vectors and timely removal of reservoir hosts. Insecticide treatment to seedlings 1 to 3 days prior to transplanting is effective to reduce virus infection. Some resistance against CCYV has been identified in melon and breeding efforts are in progress to incorporate resistance into melon.