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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Salinas, California » Crop Improvement and Protection Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #325038

Research Project: Biology, Epidemiology and Management of Vector-Borne Viruses of Sugarbeet and Vegetable Crops

Location: Crop Improvement and Protection Research

Title: Tomato ring spot virus

Author
item Wintermantel, William - Bill

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/14/2017
Publication Date: 6/15/2017
Citation: Wintermantel, W.M. 2017. Tomato ring spot virus. In: Keinath, A.P., Wintermantel, W.M., Zitter, T.A., editors. Compendium of Cucurbit Diseases and Pests. 2nd edition. St. Paul, MN: APS Press. p. 152-153.

Interpretive Summary: Tomato ringspot disease, caused by Tomato ringspot virus (TmRSV), is associated with the presence of dagger nematodes, the major vectors of Tomato ringspot virus (TmRSV). This virus is endemic and widely distributed in North America, as well as many parts of the world. Infected plants develop yellow mosaic symptoms, shortened internodes, proliferation of flower buds, and prominent ring spots on the discolored fruits, and squash squash plants (Cucurbita pepo) are more severely affected than other cucurbits. Symptoms can be very similar to those of Tobacco ringspot virus. ToRSV belongs to the genus Nepovirus within the family Secoviridae, and is characterized by isometric particles about 28 nm in diameter, encapsidating a single-stranded RNA genome composed of two virus particles. Efficient detection can be achieved using either commercially available serological methods as well as by molecular detection methods such as RT-PCR. The host range of ToRSV is very wide and includes plants in more than 35 botanical families, including woody and herbaceous species. The virus is easily transmitted by mechanical means and grafting, by pollen in some hosts, but its primary vectors are dagger nematodes (Xiphinema sp.). These nematodes can transmit the virus with periods as short as an hour. ToRSV can be a problem in land covered with weeds and in soils that were previously uncultivated for several years. Intense cultivation and eradication of weeds can drastically reduce the presence of the virus in the vectors. No resistant cultivars of cucumber, melon, or watermelon are currently available. In squash, resistance has been identified in a number of wild Cucurbita spp. Some accessions of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) are also resistant.

Technical Abstract: Tomato ringspot disease, caused by Tomato ringspot virus (TmRSV), is associated with the presence of dagger nematodes, the major vectors of Tomato ringspot virus (TmRSV). This virus is endemic and widely distributed in North America, as well as many parts of the world. Infected plants develop yellow mosaic symptoms, shortened internodes, proliferation of flower buds, and prominent ring spots on the discolored fruits, and squash squash plants (Cucurbita pepo) are more severely affected than other cucurbits. Symptoms can be very similar to those of Tobacco ringspot virus. ToRSV belongs to the genus Nepovirus within the family Secoviridae, and is characterized by isometric particles about 28 nm in diameter, encapsidating a single-stranded RNA genome composed of two virus particles. Efficient detection can be achieved using either commercially available serological methods as well as by molecular detection methods such as RT-PCR. The host range of ToRSV is very wide and includes plants in more than 35 botanical families, including woody and herbaceous species. The virus is easily transmitted by mechanical means and grafting, by pollen in some hosts, but its primary vectors are dagger nematodes (Xiphinema sp.). These nematodes can transmit the virus with periods as short as an hour. ToRSV can be a problem in land covered with weeds and in soils that were previously uncultivated for several years. Intense cultivation and eradication of weeds can drastically reduce the presence of the virus in the vectors. No resistant cultivars of cucumber, melon, or watermelon are currently available. In squash, resistance has been identified in a number of wild Cucurbita spp. Some accessions of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) are also resistant.