Location: Crop Improvement and Protection ResearchTitle: Effects of ultralow oxygen and vacuum treatments on bed bug (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) survival
|Liu, Yong Biao|
|HAYNES, KENNETH - University Of Kentucky|
Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/3/2016
Publication Date: 4/22/2016
Citation: Liu, Y.-B., Haynes, K.F. 2016. Effects of ultralow oxygen and vacuum treatments on bed bug (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) survival. Journal of Economic Entomology. 109:1303-1309.
Interpretive Summary: Ultralow oxygen atmosphere and vacuum were tested on bed bugs to determine their effects on bed bug mortality. All life stages of bed bugs: nymphs, adults, and eggs, were found to be very susceptible to low oxygen stresses and therefore can be potentially controlled by stored bed bug infested objects in ultralow oxygen atmospheres or under vacuum. The treatments were more effective when they had lower oxygen levels, higher temperatures, and longer treatment time. Over 98% mortalities of nymphs and adults were achieved in a 8 h treatment under 0.1% O2 at 30°C (86°F). A vacuum treatment of 12 h at -29 inHg vacuum and 30°C (86°F) was capable to achieve complete control of nymphs adults and eggs of bed bugs. The study indicated that ultralow oxygen and vacuum treatments have potential to be an effective and economical alternative treatment for bed bug control.
Technical Abstract: Control of bed bugs has always been problematic, balancing among efficacy, safety, and cost. In this study, ultralow oxygen (ULO) and vacuum treatments were tested on bed bugs to develop a safer, effective, and environmental friendly solution to bed bug infestations. ULO treatments were established through flushing with nitrogen in sealed enclosures. All life stages of bed bugs were found to be susceptible to ULO and vacuum treatments and efficacy of the treatments increased with reduced oxygen levels, increased treatment time and temperature. In the ULO treatments, 100% mortality of bed bug nymphs and adults and >98% mortality of bed bug eggs were achieved in the 8 h treatment under 0.1% O2 atmosphere at 30°C. Different levels of vacuum that yielded different levels of oxygen levels were tested on all life stages of bed bugs. The susceptibility of different stages to vacuum treatments increased from nymphs, adults, to eggs. Complete control of all life stages were achieved in 12 h under -982 mbar (-29.0 inHg) vacuum at 30°C. This study demonstrated that bed bugs were very susceptible to low oxygen stresses and ULO and vacuum treatments can be used to effectively control bed bug infestations.