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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Salinas, California » Crop Improvement and Protection Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #324307

Research Project: Biology, Epidemiology and Management of Vector-Borne Viruses of Sugarbeet and Vegetable Crops

Location: Crop Improvement and Protection Research

Title: Lettuce chlorosis

Author
item Wintermantel, William - Bill

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/2/2016
Publication Date: 7/20/2017
Citation: Wintermantel, W.M. 2017. Lettuce chlorosis. In: Subbarao, K.V., Davis, R.M., Gibertson, R.L., Raid, R.N., editors. Compendium of Lettuce Diseases and Pests. 2nd edition. St. Paul, MN: APS Press. p. 78-79.

Interpretive Summary: Lettuce chlorosis virus (LCV) is a whitefly-transmitted virus that induces severe yellowing of plants, vein clearing (lightening of veins on leaves), reduced plant growth (stunting), and brittleness of leaves in lettuce. LCV particles are long, flexuous, filamentous rods. The virus genome is composed of two distinct molecules of ssRNA. RNAs 1and 2 are 8,591 and 8556 nucleotides in length, respectively. RNA1 encodes proteins predominantly involved in virus replication. RNA2 encodes structural proteins that are involved in formation of virus particles and are necessary for virus transmission by whiteflies. LCV is transmitted in a semipersistent manner by the whiteflies, Bemisia tabaci biotypes A and B, with approximately equal efficiency. The virus has a wide host range of at least 31 plant species in 13 families, and is most known its symptoms on lettuce and sugarbeet. LCV does not infect plants in the family Cucurbitaceae. Weed hosts are the most likely source of LCV for whitefly acquisition and transmission to lettuce plants. LCV is not considered a serious problem in lettuce unless plants are infected early. Planting of lettuce adjacent to or near infected fields should be avoided, and elimination of weeds that can serve as source plants for whitefly acquisition of virus is also of value. The application of insecticide treatments can reduce whitefly populations. This will benefit plants by reducing insect feeding damage on lettuce and may slow the rate of symptom development in the field.

Technical Abstract: Lettuce chlorosis virus (LCV) is a whitefly-transmitted virus that induces severe yellowing of plants, vein clearing (lightening of veins on leaves), reduced plant growth (stunting), and brittleness of leaves in lettuce. LCV particles are long, flexuous, filamentous rods with a typical length of 800–850 x 12 nm. The virus genome is composed of two distinct molecules of ssRNA. RNAs 1and 2 are 8,591 and 8556 nucleotides in length, respectively. RNA1 encodes proteins predominantly involved in virus replication. RNA2 encodes structural proteins that are involved in formation of virus particles and are necessary for virus transmission by whiteflies. LCV is transmitted in a semipersistent manner by the whiteflies, Bemisia tabaci biotypes A and B, with approximately equal efficiency. The virus has a wide host range of at least 31 plant species in 13 families, and is most known its symptoms on lettuce and sugarbeet. LCV does not infect plants in the family Cucurbitaceae. Weed hosts are the most likely source of LCV for whitefly acquisition and transmission to lettuce plants. LCV is not considered a serious problem in lettuce unless plants are infected early. Planting of lettuce adjacent to or near infected fields should be avoided, and elimination of weeds that can serve as source plants for whitefly acquisition of virus is also of value. The application of insecticide treatments can reduce whitefly populations. This will benefit plants by reducing insect feeding damage on lettuce and may slow the rate of symptom development in the field.