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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Salinas, California » Crop Improvement and Protection Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #324304

Research Project: Biology, Epidemiology and Management of Vector-Borne Viruses of Sugarbeet and Vegetable Crops

Location: Crop Improvement and Protection Research

Title: Beet western yellows

Author
item Wintermantel, William - Bill

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/2/2016
Publication Date: 7/20/2017
Citation: Wintermantel, W.M. 2017. Beet western yellows. In: Subbarao, K.V., Davis, R.M., Gibertson, R.L., Raid, R.N., editors. Compendium of Lettuce Diseases and Pests. 2nd edition. St. Paul, MN: APS Press. p. 68-70.

Interpretive Summary: Beet western yellows virus (BWYV) is widely distributed throughout many parts of the United States, and has been associated with lettuce production since at least the 1950s. The virus is responsible for yield and quality losses in lettuce throughout the world, and is one of several viruses that can cause yellowing symptoms on lettuce. BWYV symptoms and rate of symptom development vary by cultivar, plant age at infection, and climatic conditions. Symptoms begin with mild chlorotic spotting of interveinal areas, especially at the leaf tips of middle-aged and older leaves. Interveinal yellowing continues with older leaves becoming increasingly discolored, ranging from an intense yellow color to nearly white. BWYV is a member of the genus, Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. BWYV particles are icosahedral, with a diameter of 26 nm, and a sedimentation coefficient of 115–118S. The genome consists of a single-stranded RNA of 5666 nucleotides. at least eight species of aphids are known to transmit BWYV. The virus is transmitted in a persistent (circulative) manner within the aphid vector, but does not replicate within the vector. It can be retained for most of the life of the insect. Reducing aphid populations through insecticide treatment programs or through biological control methods will reduce, but not eliminate, transmission of the virus from diseased sources to lettuce. Resistance to BWYV has been identified in wild Lactuca species.

Technical Abstract: Beet western yellows virus (BWYV) is widely distributed throughout many parts of the United States, and has been associated with lettuce production since at least the 1950s. The virus is responsible for yield and quality losses in lettuce throughout the world, and is one of several viruses that can cause yellowing symptoms on lettuce. BWYV symptoms and rate of symptom development vary by cultivar, plant age at infection, and climatic conditions. Symptoms begin with mild chlorotic spotting of interveinal areas, especially at the leaf tips of middle-aged and older leaves. Interveinal yellowing continues with older leaves becoming increasingly discolored, ranging from an intense yellow color to nearly white. BWYV is a member of the genus, Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. BWYV particles are icosahedral, with a diameter of 26 nm, and a sedimentation coefficient of 115–118S. The genome consists of a single-stranded RNA of 5666 nucleotides. at least eight species of aphids are known to transmit BWYV. The virus is transmitted in a persistent (circulative) manner within the aphid vector, but does not replicate within the vector. It can be retained for most of the life of the insect. Reducing aphid populations through insecticide treatment programs or through biological control methods will reduce, but not eliminate, transmission of the virus from diseased sources to lettuce. Resistance to BWYV has been identified in wild Lactuca species.