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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Ames, Iowa » National Animal Disease Center » Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #323175

Title: Serologic survey for antibodies against three genotypes of bovine parainfluenza 3 virus in unvaccinated ungulates in Alabama

item NEWCOMER, BENJAMIN - Auburn University
item Neill, John
item GALIK, PATRICIA K - Auburn University
item RIDDELL, KAY - Auburn University
item ZHANG, YIJING - Auburn University
item PASSLER, THOMAS - Auburn University
item VELAYUDHAN, BINU T - Texas A&M University
item WALZ, PAUL - Auburn University

Submitted to: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/23/2016
Publication Date: 1/1/2017
Publication URL:
Citation: Newcomer, B.W., Neill, J.D., Galik, P., Riddell, K.P., Zhang, Y., Passler, T., Velayudhan, B., Walz, P.H. 2017. Serologic survey for antibodies against three genotypes of bovine parainfluenza 3 virus in unvaccinated ungulates in Alabama. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 78(2):239-243.

Interpretive Summary: Bovine parainfluenza 3 viruses (BPI3V) are commonly associated with bovine respiratory disease complex. These viruses generally do not act alone but rather are associated with other bacterial and viral pathogens. BPI3V can be segregated into 3 genotypes based on nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA. These are termed A, B and C. The A genotype has been characterized primarily in North America, while the B was described in Australia and the C genotype was described in Asia. Recently it was discovered that the B and C genotypes exist in the U.S. and are the predominant virus in circulation in cattle herds. This paper describes work done to look at antibody titers in cattle, goats, New World camelids, and white-tailed deer in the Southern U.S. and to determine which BPI3V are circulating in these ruminant species. This study found that these ruminant species had antibody titers to these viruses, demonstrating infection. Titers were generally higher against genotype B viruses, indicating that this may be the dominant genotype in circulation. The cattle vaccines sold in the U.S. are formulated with only genotype A viruses. This calls into question the effectiveness of these genotype A vaccine strains in protection against genotype B and C viruses.

Technical Abstract: Bovine parainfluenza 3 virus (BPI3V) is a member of the Respirovirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family. Infection with BPI3V often results in mild or subclinical disease but can also result in acute respiratory disease either alone, or in conjunction with other respiratory pathogens in the development of bovine respiratory disease complex. Disease is characterized by fever, nasal discharge, and the development of antibodies in serum and the nasal mucosa. Infection in beef and dairy herds is considered endemic but other ungulate species can also be infected by BPI3V. The virus exists as three genotypes (A, B, and C) with BPI3V-A considered the only genotype present in the United States (US) until a recent report documented the presence of all three genotypes in clinical samples from US animals. A serological survey was undertaken in six groups of cattle, goats, New World camelids, and white-tailed deer in the southeastern US to search for evidence of infection with non-A BPI3V. Samples collected from two groups of cattle and the New World camelids were seropositive. Seroprevalence was highest to BPI3V-B, indicating that BPI3V-A may no longer be the predominant circulating strain. This shift in viral populations could hold significant implications in protection from BPI3V infection as current vaccines use BPI3V-A as the immunizing strain.