|Luthria, Devanand - Dave|
|Lu, Yingjian - University Of Maryland|
|Memon, Ayaz - University Of Sindh|
|Fuerst, Fuerst - Washington State University|
|Kizonas, Alecia - Washington State University|
|Morris, Craig - US Department Of Agriculture (USDA)|
Submitted to: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/1/2017
Publication Date: 3/4/2017
Citation: Luthria, D.L., Lu, Y., Memon, A.A., Fuerst, F.E., Kizonas, A.M., Morris, C. 2017. Changes in the phenolic composition of pancake fractions made from refined and whole-wheat flour of two wheat varieties. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. vol:60:10-16.
Interpretive Summary: Batter-based wheat products such as cakes, ice cream cones, pancakes, and waffles are consumed globally and are important sources of energy, proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids, and other bioactive phytochemicals. In this study, we investigated the changes in the levels of phenolic acids during pancake preparation from refined and whole-wheat flours of two wheat varieties. Higher levels of phenolic acids were extracted and and identified in whole wheat as compared to the refined wheat samples. The total phenolic acid content did not significantly change during preparation of pancake from either the refined or the whole wheat flours. The retention factor for the phenolic acids was close to 100% for the cooking of pancakes.
Technical Abstract: In this study, we investigated the changes in the levels of phenolic acids during pancake preparation from refined and whole-wheat flours of two wheat varieties. Comparison of the efficacy of two commonly used methods for hydrolysis and extraction of phenolic acids, namely ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) showed that yield of total phenolic acids (TPA) was 16-56% higher among all varieties and flour types using UAE as compared to MAE. Most (> 90%) of the phenolic acids in all wheat flour samples existed in insoluble bound form. Ferulic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid, accounting for a mean of 85% and 90% of TPA among all RF (refined flour) and WW (whole wheat) samples, respectively. Among the two wheat varieties evaluated, WB936 (hard red wheat) consistently had higher TPA levels than Louise (soft white) wheat variety. Strong correlations (r = 0.900) were observed between ultraviolet spectral absorbance ('max at 280 and 'max at 310 nm) and a detailed HPLC analysis of TPA and ferulic acid. The yield of TPA decreased marginally in batter compared to flour, but after cooking the levels of TPA in pancake were similar to those observed in the flour samples. The result indicated that the total phenolic acids did not significantly change during preparation of pancake from the refined and whole wheat flours.