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ARS Home » Plains Area » Fargo, North Dakota » Edward T. Schafer Agricultural Research Center » Cereal Crops Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #319094

Research Project: Genetic Improvement of Durum and Spring Wheat for Quality and Resistance to Diseases and Pests

Location: Cereal Crops Research

Title: Variation in chromosome constitution of the Xiaoyan series partial amphiploids and its relations to stripe rust and stem rust resistance

Author
item Zheng, Qi - Chinese Academy Of Sciences
item Luo, Qiaoling - Chinese Academy Of Sciences
item Niu, Zhixia - Former ARS Employee
item Li, Hongwei - Chinese Academy Of Sciences
item Li, Bin - Chinese Academy Of Sciences
item Xu, Steven
item Li, Zhensheng - Chinese Academy Of Sciences

Submitted to: Journal of Genetics and Genomics
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/15/2015
Publication Date: 9/11/2015
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/62639
Citation: Zheng, Q., Luo, Q., Niu, Z., Li, H., Li, B., Xu, S.S., Li, Z. 2015. Variation in chromosome constitution of the Xiaoyan series partial amphiploids and its relationship to stripe rust and stem rust resistance. Journal of Genetics and Genomics. 42:657-660.

Interpretive Summary: An amphiploid is a hybrid having a diploid (i.e. cells have two homologous copies of each chromosome) set of chromosomes derived from each parental species. Wheat-tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum) partial amphiploids created by crossing bread wheat to tall wheatgrass usually contain a complete set of wheat chromosomes and a partial set of wheatgrass chromosomes. They are an important bridging germplasm for transferring useful genes from the grass chromosomes into wheat chromosomes. In 1980s, a number of wheat-tall wheatgrass partial amphiploids were produced at Northwest Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Yangling, China) and they are subsequently maintained in different institutions. The chromosome constitutions in five partial amphiploids (Xiaoyan 68, Xiaoyan 693, Xiaoyan 784, Xiaoyan 7430, and Xiaoyan 7631) maintained at the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Beijing, China) were recently analyzed. In this study, we analyzed the chromosome compositions of the five partial amphiploids (designated as XN-Xiaoyan 68, XN-Xiaoyan 693, XN-Xiaoyan 783, and XN-Xiaoyan 784, XN-Xiaoyan 7631) maintained at Northwest A&F University (Yangling, China) and evaluated their resistance to stripe rust and stem rust. Results showed that XN-Xiaoyan 693 and XN-Xiaoyan 7631 had similar chromosome constitution to Xiaoyan 693 and Xiaoyan 7631, respectively. However, XN-Xiaoyan 68 and XN-Xiaoyan 784 have different chromosome constitution from Xiaoyan 68 and Xiaoyan 784, respectively. Stem rust and stripe evaluation showed that all the five XN-Xiaoyan amphiploids were highly resistant to stripe rust and three of the amphiploids (XN-Xiaoyan 68, XN-Xiaoyan 783, and XN-Xiaoyan 784) had excellent resistance to stem rust, indicating that these amphiploids were a valuable source of stem rust and strip resistance for wheat improvement.

Technical Abstract: In the tertiary gene pool of wheat, tall wheatgrass Thinopyrum ponticum (2n = 10x = 70) is an excellent source of resistance genes against numerous wheat diseases. The creation of wheat-Th. ponticum partial amphiploids is an intermediate step for transferring the useful genes from Th. ponticum to wheat through chromosome engineering. In 1980s, a number of Xiaoyan series wheat-Th. ponticum partial amphiploids were produced at Northwest Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Yangling, China) and they are subsequently maintained in different institutions. The chromosome constitutions in five partial amphiploids (Xiaoyan 68, Xiaoyan 693, Xiaoyan 784, Xiaoyan 7430, and Xiaoyan 7631) maintained at the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Beijing, China) were recently analyzed. The objective of this study was to determine if the Xiaoyan series partial amphiploids with the same origin still have the similar chromosome constitution after maintenance in different places for several years. In this study, we analyzed the chromosome compositions of the five partial amphiploids (designated as XN-Xiaoyan 68, XN-Xiaoyan 693, XN-Xiaoyan 783, and XN-Xiaoyan 784, XN-Xiaoyan 7631) maintained at Northwest A&F University (Yangling, Shaanxi, China) using the sequential multi c-GISH and mc-FISH technique, and evaluated their resistance to stripe rust and stem rust. Results showed that XN-Xiaoyan 693 and XN-Xiaoyan 7631 had similar chromosome constitution to Xiaoyan 693 and Xiaoyan 7631, respectively. However, XN-Xiaoyan 68 and XN-Xiaoyan 784 are cytogenetically different from Xiaoyan 68 and Xiaoyan 784, respectively. Stem rust and stripe evaluation showed that all the five XN-Xiaoyan amphiploids were highly resistant to stripe rust and three of the amphiploids (XN-Xiaoyan 68, XN-Xiaoyan 783, and XN-Xiaoyan 784) had excellent resistance to stem rust, indicating that these amphiploids were a valuable source of stem rust and strip resistance for wheat improvement.