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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Bowling Green, Kentucky » Food Animal Environmental Systems Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #318634

Research Project: Efficient Management and Use of Animal Manure to Protect Human Health and Environmental Quality

Location: Food Animal Environmental Systems Research

Title: Approaches to assess the effects and risks of veterinary antibiotics applied with manure to soil

Author
item Sven, Jechalke - Julius Kuhn Institute
item Cook, Kimberly - Kim
item Kornelia, Smalla - Julius Kuhn Institute

Submitted to: Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/8/2015
Publication Date: 11/26/2015
Citation: Sven, J., Cook, K.L., Kornelia, S. 2015. Approaches to assess the effects and risks of veterinary antibiotics applied with manure to soil. Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria - An Open Challenge, Prof. Maria Cristina Ossiprandi (Ed.), InTech, DOI: 10.5772/61871.

Interpretive Summary: Antibiotic-resistant pathogens are a growing public health threat challenging the achievements of modern medicine by making available treatment options for common infections ineffective. Veterinary use of antibiotics for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes or to promote growth may contribute to this issue. Antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants located on mobile genetic elements are excreted by the animals and may reach the environment through run-off, leaching and/or following manure application to agricultural fields, where they can affect the structure and function of soil bacterial communities. However, we are only beginning to understand the global effects of environmental pollution with antibiotics and resistance determinants and the resulting risks for human health. In this book chapter, we summarize recent advances, limitations and research needed to optimize methods to quantify and evaluate the effects and risks associated with these compounds. Approaches that are discussed focus on antibiotic resistance genes and include classical tools such as cultivation and PCR-detection as well as quantitative real-time PCR and next generation sequencing technologies used in combination with functional screening.

Technical Abstract: In veterinary medicine, large quantities of antibiotic substances are administered each year for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes or to promote growth. As a consequence, the antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants located on mobile genetic elements are excreted by the animals and reach the environment through run-off, leaching and/or following manure application to agricultural fields, where they can affect the structure and function of soil bacterial communities. However, we are only beginning to understand the global effects of environmental pollution with antibiotics and resistance determinants and the resulting risks for human health. For regulatory purposes, there is urgent need for criteria and methods that allow reliable and reproducible assessment of risks associated with release of realistic concentrations of antibiotics and resistance determinants into the environment following manure application. In this chapter, we will summarize recent advances, limitations and research needed to optimize methods to quantify and evaluate the effects and risks associated with these compounds. Approaches that are discussed focus on antibiotic resistance genes and include classical tools such as cultivation and PCR-detection as well as quantitative real-time PCR and next generation sequencing technologies used in combination with functional screening.