Submitted to: Viroids and Satellites
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/5/2015
Publication Date: 8/10/2017
Citation: Ling, K. 2017. Decontamination measures to prevent mechanical transmission of viroids. In: Hadidi, A., Flores, R., Randles, J., Palukaitis, P., editors. Viroids and Satellites. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. p. 437-446. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-801498-1.00041-3
Interpretive Summary: N/A
Technical Abstract: With seed-borne and ease in mechanical transmission, an increasing number of viroid outbreaks have been reported in recent years. Such major surge in viroid epidemics is likely enhanced by the intensive ‘hands-on’ activities in greenhouse tomato production. Although viroids are resilient to heat treatment, they are quite sensitive to a number of chemical treatments. The most effective disinfectants to virtually all tested viroids are 10-20% household bleach (0.5-1% sodium hypochlorite), followed by a mixture of 2% formaldehyde plus 2% sodium hydroxide, and 2% Virkon S. Milk has also been shown to be useful and could serve as an alternative. Despite such promising results in chemical disinfection, an effective viroid disease management would likely require an integrated management approach, including quarantine and seed certification, application of hygiene best practices and the use of effective disinfectants, scouting and removing diseased plants, greenhouse decontamination and crop rotation to non-host plants.