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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Davis, California » Western Human Nutrition Research Center » Obesity and Metabolism Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #317425

Title: Addition of a dairy rich milk fat globule membrane to a high-saturated fat meal reduces the postprandial insulinaemic and inflammatory response in overweight and obese adults

item DEMMER, ELIEKE - University Of California
item Van Loan, Marta
item RIVERA, NANCY - University Of California
item ROGERS, TARA - University Of California
item Gertz, Erik
item GERMAN, J.BRUCE - University Of California
item SMILOWITZ, JENNIFER - University Of California
item ZIVKOVIC, ANGELA - University Of California

Submitted to: Journal of Nutritional Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/15/2015
Publication Date: 2/28/2016
Citation: Demmer, E., Van Loan, M.D., Rivera, N., Rogers, T.S., Gertz, E.R., German, J., Smilowitz, J.T., Zivkovic, A.M. 2016. Addition of a dairy rich milk fat globule membrane to a high-saturated fat meal reduces the postprandial insulinaemic and inflammatory response in overweight and obese adults. Journal of Nutritional Science. 5(e14):1-11. doi: 10.1017/jns.2015.42.

Interpretive Summary: The Dietary Guidelines for Americans as well as the American Heart Association suggest limiting dietary saturated fat intake as a means of reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Saturated fat is found in meat and dairy products and some plant sources, but not all saturated fats have the same chemical structure. If the chemical structure of saturated fats differs would the cardiovascular disease risk also differ? These differences among the saturated fats raises interesting research questions. One such question is whereever can some components of these foods provide a benefit to health rather than a risk. Therefore, we conducted a study to examine the effects of a plant-based saturated fat (palm oil commonly found in the food supply) on post-meal inflammation and other metabolic outcomes and to assertain if the addition of milk fat globular membrane (a component of milk) modulates the post-meal inflammatory response. Thirty six overweight or obese adult men and women consumed a high fat beverage with or without the milk fat globular membrane and changes in blood parameters were monitored for 6 h. Consumption of the high fat beverage with milk fat globular membrane resulted in lower levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, insulin and intra-cellular adhesion molecule (a marker of inflammation) compared to the high fat beverage without milk fat globular membrane. In addition, for participants with metabolic syndrome characteristics post-meal insulin response was also reduced. These results suggest that milk fat globular membrane, a product in milk, may be useful in reducing inflammatory responses to high fat intake.

Technical Abstract: Background: Overweight, obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and postprandial inflammation are all independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). To reduce CVD risk, palm oil has become a common substitute for both hydrogenated unsaturated fats, that contain trans fatty acids, and animal source saturated fats. It has been suggested that milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) has anti-inflammatory properties. Objective: To determine the postprandial inflammatory effect of a high-fat meal using palm oil with and without the addition of milk fat globule membrane. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, controlled cross-over trial was conducted in adults with MetS or individuals who were obese but metabolically healthy. Participants consumed two isocaloric high fat meals separated by a washout period of 1-2wks. Serum, collected at 0, 1, 3, and 6 h postprandially, was analyzed for interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid-A (SAA), cellular adhesion molecules (ICAM, VCAM), glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG), high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-C), HDL:LDL, and cortisol. Results: Consumption of the high-fat test meal with vs. without MFGM resulted in significantly lower concentrations of total cholesterol (p=0.021), LDL-C (p=0.046), sICAM (p=0.005), and insulin (p=0.005). In individuals with MetS and high baseline CRP concentrations, the addition of MGFM significantly dampened the postprandial insulin response. Conclusion: Adding MFGM to a high-fat meal may lower CVD risk by reducing postprandial sICAM and increasing anti-inflammatory IL-10 concentrations; and reducing the insulin response in individuals with MetS, particularly those with inflammation.