Location: National Germplasm Resources LaboratoryTitle: Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide.
|KHOURY, COLIN - INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TROPICAL AGRICULTURE (CIAT)|
|ACHICANOY, HAROLD - INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TROPICAL AGRICULTURE (CIAT)|
|BJORMAN, ANNE - THE CROP TRUST|
|NAVARRO-RACINES, CARLOS - INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TROPICAL AGRICULTURE (CIAT)|
|GUARINO, LUIGI - THE CROP TRUST|
|FLORES-PALACIOS, XIMENA - AUCKLAND UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY|
|ENGELS, JOHANNES - BIOVERSITY INTERNATIONAL|
|DEMPEWOLF, HANNES - THE CROP TRUST|
|RAMIREZ-, VILLEGAS - INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TROPICAL AGRICULTURE (CIAT)|
|CASTANEDA-ALVAREZ, NORA - INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TROPICAL AGRICULTURE (CIAT)|
|FOWLER, CARY - THE CROP TRUST|
|JARVIS, ANDY - INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TROPICAL AGRICULTURE (CIAT)|
|RESEBERG, LOREN - UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA|
|STRUIK, PAUL - UNIVERSITY OF WAGENINGEN|
Submitted to: Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/22/2016
Publication Date: 6/8/2016
Citation: Khoury, C.K., Achicanoy, H.A., Bjorman, A.D., Navarro-Racines, C., Guarino, L., Flores-Palacios, X., Engels, J.M.M., Wiersema, J.H., Dempewolf, H., Sotelo, S., Ramirez-Villegas, J., Castaneda-Alvarez, N., Fowler, C., Jarvis, A., Rieseberg, L.H., Struik, P.C. 2016. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 283:20160792. DOI:10.1098/rspb.2016.0792.
Interpretive Summary: The origins of the world's principal crops can be traced to specific regions where wild relatives of these crops can be found that are potentially useful in plant breeding to improve agricultural productivity. This paper analyses national crop consumption patterns in relation to crop origins to determine the extent of each country's dependence on crops that originate from outside their boundaries. Changes in dependency for a country are evaluated by comparing current agricultural production and consumption statistics to those from 50 years ago. The evidence indicates a high degree of increasing dependency by countries on crops of foreign origin, stressing the need for international cooperation to promote access and exchange of plant materials among countries to preserve global agricultural production. This manuscript will be useful to a wide range of scientists interested in plant genetic resource conservation and food security, and will serve as an important point of reference for national policymakers in crafting international agreements on the access and sharing of these resources.
Technical Abstract: Crop genetic diversity is concentrated within specific geographic regions worldwide. While access to this diversity is critical to continued increases in agricultural productivity, the geopolitical significance of the geography of crop diversity has not been quantified. We assess the degree to which the food systems of countries worldwide are comprised of crops from each of these regions of diversity. We then examine dependence of countries upon crops from regions of diversity other than their own (“foreign crops”), and determine change in dependence over the past 50 years. Crop diversity hotspots occur across the world’s tropics and subtropics, extending into temperate regions in both hemispheres. Countries are highly dependent on foreign crops in their food supplies (68.7% as a global mean) and national production systems (69.3%). This broad reliance is evident even in countries located in regions of high indigenous crop diversity and has increased significantly over the past half century, stressing the need for (inter)national policies to promote genetic resource conservation, access and exchange.