Location: Obesity and Metabolism ResearchTitle: Fructose and high fructose corn syrup Author
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/31/2015
Publication Date: 1/2/2016
Citation: Keim, N.L., Stanhope, K.L., Havel, P.J. 2016. Fructose and high fructose corn syrup. In: Caballero, B., editor. Encyclopedia of Food and Health. Academic Press. p. 119-124. Interpretive Summary: The simple sugar, fructose, occurs in nature in many fruits, and it is also added to many food products as a sweetener. This chapter reviews the properties and sources of fructose in our food supply, the estimated intake of fructose in U.S. diets, the absorption of fructose from the gastrointestinal tract, and the metabolism of fructose and its effect on lipid and glucose metabolism. The adverse effects of consuming large amounts of fructose or high fructose corn syrup on risk factors of chronic disease are discussed. Finally, the chapter contains a summary of the well-known errors in genetic coding involved in fructose metabolism.
Technical Abstract: Fructose, a monosaccharide, is naturally present in fruits, vegetables and honey, usually accompanied by other sugars including glucose and the disaccharide sucrose. It is also found as a component of sweeteners used in many processed food products, usually as sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). This article reviews the properties and sources of fructose in the food supply, the estimated intake in Western diets, the absorption and metabolism of fructose, and its effect on lipid and glucose metabolism. The health implications of increased consumption of fructose are discussed, and inborn errors of fructose metabolism are described.